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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
A KNOWLEDGE of customary weights and measures is very
desirable, and, therefore, the following tables have been drawn up in the most
simple form. No. 1 is the most extensively used of all weights, being that by
which we buy and sell nearly everything that is weighed. No. 2 is used
principally for weighing gold and silver. No. 3 is often met with in physicians'
prescriptions, although drugs are now sold by avoirdupois weight. No. 4 is that
by which diamonds and other gems are weighed. The grain is divisible into
sixteen parts. No. 5 represents the most frequently used of measures of length.
The measures marked with a star (*) are of less common occurrence, and are, in
fact, only employed for special purposes, when they are used. The degree
consists of only sixty geographical miles, which are equal to rather over
sixty-nine statute miles. No. 6 is used for measuring surfaces, and is employed
by carpenters, glaziers, land-surveyors, &c. No. 7 is for measuring stone,
marble, timber, and other solid bodies. No. 8 is used for measuring a great
variety of goods, both dry and liquid.
Numerous other measures were formerly in use, but are not here given, as being out of date. There are also certain articles of commerce, as wool, cheese and butter, hay and straw, firewood, &c., for which peculiar weights are used, but, as these are principally employed in wholesale trade, they also are omitted. Coals were once sold by measure, but must now be sold by weight. In London and elsewhere, a ton of coals consists of ten sacks each sack containing two hundredweights. Potatoes are now commonly sold by weight, though measures are still used in some places.
1 Grain (gr.)
1 Dram equals 27 1/3 1/2 Grains
1 Ounce (oz.) equals 16 Drams.
1 Pound (lb.) equals 16 Ounces
1 Stone (for meat or fish) equals 8 pounds
1 Stone (for general purposes) equals 14 pounds
1 Quarter equals 28 pounds
1 Hundredweight (cwt.) equals 112 Pounds
1 Ton equals 20 Cwt.
1 Grain (gr.)
1 Pennyweight (dwt.) equals 24 grains
1 Ounce (oz.) equals 20 Dwt.
1 Pound (lb.) equals 12 unces
3. - APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT
1 Scruple equals 20 Grains.
1 Dram equals 3 Scruples
1 Ounce equals 8 Drams
1 Pound equals 12 Ounces.
4. - DIAMOND MEASURE
1 Carat equals 4 Grains
1 Carat equals 3 1/5 Gr. Troy
5. - LONG MEASURE
1 Nail* equals 2¼ Inches.
1 Palm* equals 3 Inches.
1 Hand* equals 4 Inches.
1 Span* equals 9 Inches.
1 Foot equals 12 Inches.
1 Yard equals 3 Feet.
1 Ell* equals 1¼ Yards.
1 Fathom* equals 2 Yards.
1 Pole or Rod equals 5½ Yards.
1 Furlong equals 40 Poles.
1 Mile (statute) equals 8 Furlongs.
1 League equals 3 Miles.
1 Degree equals 69 Miles.
6. - SUPERFICIAL MEASURE
1 Square Inch.
1 Square Foot equals 144 Squares Inches.
1 Square Yard equals 9 Square Feet.
1 Square Pole equals 30¼ Square Yards.
1 Rood equals 40 Square Poles.
1 Acre equals 4 Roods.
7. - CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURES.
1 Cubic Inch.
1 Cubic Foot equals 1,728 Inches.
1 Cubic Yard equals 27 Cubic Feet.
1 Load or Ton equals 40 Feet of Rough Timber, or 50 Feet of Hewn Timber.
1 Ton Shipping equals 42 Cubic Feet.
8 - HOLLOW MEASURE
1 Pint equals 4 Gills.
1 Quart equals 2 Pints.
1 Pottle equals 2 Quarts.
1 Gallon equals 4 Quarts.
1 Peck equals 2 Gallons
1 Bushel equals 8 Gallons.
1 Coom equals 4 Bushels.
1 Quarter equals 8 Bushels.
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