Victorian London - Directories - Dickens's Dictionary of London, by Charles Dickens, Jr., 1879 - "CIS-COM"

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Cisterns.—The water supplied to London householders is so bad in itself, even when it is first turned on, that it is a pity to run any risk of having it made even worse than it is. All cisterns should be thoroughly cleaned out about once a month, and the careful housekeeper will not only order the job to be done, but will himself see that his orders are executed. The family medical man and the family chemist would make smaller incomes than they do now, if all cisterns were regularly seen to.(See ANALYSTS.)

City Carlton Club. — In connection with the Conservative party, and designed to promote its objects. The only persons eligible for admission are those who profess and will support Conservative and sound Constitutional principles. The election of members is vested solely in the committee, and is by ballot. Six members of the committee to be a quorum at such ballot, and one black ball in four to exclude. The names of candidates are taken in the order in which they are inserted in the candidates' book, but peers, eldest sons of peers, members of the House of Commons and members of the Carlton, the Junior Carlton, the Conservative, and St. Stephen's Clubs, as also such persons holding high civic or other distinguished positions, as the committee may in their judgment think fit, are entitled to be balloted for immediately. The entrance fee is £5 5s., and the annual subscription £6 6s.

City Companies. — There are upwards of eighty City Companies, few of which have at the present time much to do with the trade which they are supposed to represent. Indeed, it may be said that the most onerous duties which fall to the lot of many of the governing bodies of these institutions consist in the management of wealthy charities, and in the exercise of a profuse hospitality. To this, as to all other rules, there are, of course, honourable exceptions; and it is somewhat remarkable that it is from some of the smaller companies, who do not possess halls of their own, that the movements for the encouragement of technical education have received the greatest assistance. The most interesting of the halls will be found described under their proper alphabetical headings, and a list of the companies themselves is here appended. Elaborate information in regard to fees payable upon taking up the freedom of any of the companies, by patrimony, servitude, purchase, or otherwise, upon admission to the livery, and upon election to the courts, together with much interesting matter respecting the charities under the control of the several companies, will be found fully set forth in Messrs. Collingridge's carefully- compiled "City of London Directory." The following is a list of the livery companies and their halls. A supplementary list is added of the companies who are without hails: Apothecaries, Water-lane; Armourers and Brasiers, 81, Coleman-st. Bakers, 16, Harp-lane, Tower-st; Barbers, Monkwell-st; Brewers, Addle-st, Wood-st; Butchers, 5 ½ , Eastcheap. Carpenters, 68, London-wall; Clothworkers, 41, Mincing-lane; Coach and Coach Harness Makers, Noble-st, Cheapside; Coopers, 71, Basinghall-st; Cordwainers, 7, Cannon-st; Curriers, 6, London-wall ; Cutlers, 6, Cloak-lane. Drapers, 27, Throgmorton-st; - Dyers, 10, Dowgate-hill. Fishmongers, Adelaide-pl, London-bridge; Fletchers, St. Mary - Axe; Founders, 13, St. Swithin's-lane. Girdlers, 39, Basinghall-st; Goldsmiths, Foster-lane; Grocers, Grocers' Hall-court; Gunmakers, 46, Commercial-road-east. Haberdashers, 31, Gresham-st. Innholders, 6, College-st, Dowgate-hill; Ironmongers, Fenchurch-st. Joiners, Joiners' Hall-buildings. Leathersehlers, St. Helen's-pl. Mercers, 4, Ironmonger-lane' Merchant Taylors, 30, Threadneedle-st. Painters (otherwise Painter Stainers), 9, Little Trinity-lane; Pewterers, 15, Lime-st. Saddlers, 141, Cheapside; Salters, St. Swithin's-lane; Skinners, 8, Dowgate-hill; Stationers, Stationers' Hall-court. Tallow Chandlers, 5, Dowgate. hill. Vintners, 68 ½ , Upper Thames-st. Watermen and Lightermen, 18, St. Mary-at-hill; Wax Chandlers, Gresham-st. Basket Makers, Blacksmiths, Bowyers, Broderers (Embroiderers), Clockmakers, Cooks, Distillers, Fanmakers, Farriers, Feltmakers, Framework Knitters' Fruiterers, Glass-sellers, Glaziers -Glovers, Gold and Silver Wire Drawers, Homers, Loriners, Masons, Musicians, Needle Makers, Patten Makers, Plasterers, Playing Card Makers Plumbers, Poulters, Scriveners', Shipwrights, Spectacle Makers: Tilers and Bricklayers, Tinplate Workers, Turners, Upholders, Weavers, Wheelwrights, Wool-men.

City Liberal Club, Walbrook, E.C.—Was instituted -shortly after the General Election - of 1874, for the purpose of promoting intercourse between Liberals, and to afford means for remedying the disorganisation into which the Liberal party had fallen in the city of London. The election of members is vested in the committee. The names of candidates shall be put up for election in the order in which they appear in the book of candidates, excepting those of members of either House of Parliament, and of others who, in the opinion of the committee, have rendered special services to the Liberal Cause, to whom precedence shall be given. The political business of the club is conducted by a political council, the members of which are elected at general meetings of the club. A life member pays £105; but only a limited number of life members will be admitted. For an ordinary member the entrance fee is now £21, with an annual subscription of £10 10s. A country member, who has no residence or office less than fifty miles from London, pays an entrance fee of £10 10s., and an annual subscription of £6 6s. Any member heaving the United Kingdom may, on written application to the committee, become a supernumerary member, and he shall, during his absence from the United Kingdom, pay a reduced annual subscription of £2 2s. Candidates for membership may obtain nomination forms to be filled up, by applying to the secretary, at the club-house. 

City of London (The).—The Municipality of the City originally exercised jurisdiction over London proper, but the town has so outgrown its original limits that the Corporation is now entirely surrounded by rival powers, and may be called in truth an imperium in imperio. The City is divided into wards. each of which returns a member of the Upper House or Aldermen, and again into precincts, returning the members of the Common - Council or House of Commons. The Lord Mayor, who his year of office is the constitutional king of the City, is nominally elected by the members the Livery, but, as a matter of fact, is chosen from the members of the Court of Aldermen in rotation. Occasionally an extremely popular Lord Mayor is re-elected for a second term of office, and instances have been known where a still longer lease of power has been granted; on the other hand, the alderman first on the rota has been passed over and a junior preferred. The Lord Mayor exercises high judicial functions as chief magistrate of the City. The City has from time immemorial enjoyed the great privilege of appointing its own judicial functionaries, and many highly distinguished lawyers have figured on the roll of the Re- corders of the City of London. The Sheriffs of London are also Sheriffs of the county of Middlesex, and are elected by the Livery. The City has its own police, and the Livery possesses many privileges conferred and confirmed by a series of royal charters, of which they are properly tenacious. Within the boundaries of the City the Corporation has taxing power, notably in the case of coal and wine dues. It is difficult to attain to any exact knowledge of the manner in which the civic revenues are expended, but, although it is quite possible that a more economical system of expenditure might be adopted, the vast sums of money disbursed of late years in improvements of great public advantage, such as the Holborn Viaduct, the great meat and poultry market in Smithfield, &c., speak volumes in favour of the public spirit of the Corporation. The official palace of the Lord Mayor is the Mansion House, the head-quarters of the Corporation are at the Guildhall.

City of London Chess Club, Mouflets Hotel, 24, NewgLate-street, E.C.—(See CHESS.)

City of London Club, 19, Old Broad-street, E.C.—For the accommodation of merchants, bankers, and shipowners, being principals in wholesale mercantile, manufacturing, or trading establishments. Entrance fee, £31 10s., subscription, £9 8s.

City of London School, Milk-street, Cheapside. — Established by the Corporation under special Act of Parliament in 1834, and endowed with an annual sum derived from estates bequeathed in 1442 by John Carpenter, once town clerk. The object of the school is to furnish a liberal and useful education to the sons of persons engaged in professions or trades, without the necessity of removing them from the personal care and control of their parents. Boys are admissible between the ages of 7 and 15. Forms for admission with all other information, may be obtained of the secretary. The charge for each pupil is £10 10s. per annum, with singularly limited list of extras. Certain masters receive boys as boarders, and dinner is supplied to day boarders at a moderate charge. The prizes and scholarships at the school are unusually numerous and valuable, as are also the scholarships tenable at the universities. It is satisfactory to be able to add that these rewards of merit have produced most gratifying results. The history of the City of London School is writ large on the honour lists of both universities.

City Prison.—A castellated building at Holloway, covering, with its appurtenances, about ten acres, and costing about £100,000. It will hold 436 prisoners, and is constructed on the "panopticon' principle, with six wings. It is a good specimen of the style, and may be inspected by order from the Home Secretary. NEAREST Railway Station, Camden- road (Midland Railway), a long half mile; Omnibus Route, Camden-road; Tramway, Holloway-road.

Civil Service Commissioners, Cannon-row, Westminster. Hours 10 to 5.—NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster. bridge; Omnibus Routes, Parliament-street, Victoria- street, Westminster-bridge, and Strand; Cab Rank, Palace-yard.

Civil Service Co-operative Society, Limited, Haymarket, S.W.—Persons in the Civil Service of the Crown, and officials, officers in the army and navy, the reserve and auxiliary forces, clergymen, members of the legal and medical professions, and their widows and sons and daughters, are admitted as members of the society. Tickets can be obtained of the secretary, on payment of 2s. 6d. for a period of one year, and 10s. for a period of five years. Arrangements have been made with the Provident Clerks' Mutual Life Assurance Association, under which insurers are entitled to a permanent reduction of 5 per cent. on the premiums on all policies effected through the medium of the Civil Service Co-operative Society. The Provident Clerks' Benevolent Fund and Guarantee Association offer further advantages to policyholders.

Civil Service Supply Association, Limited. - This association has been formed for the purpose of supplying members of the civil service and their friends with articles both for consumption and general use at the lowest possible prices. Tickets may at any time be obtained by all Civil servants upon payment of 2s, 6d. The holders of such tickets will enjoy the privilege of purchasing goods at the stores and from the firms connected with the association; but they cannot attend the meetings, or take part in the management of the association. Tickets may be obtained by the widow (or one member of the family) of a deceased civil servant upon payment of 2s. 6d. yearly, and by the widow (or one member of the family) of a deceased member of the association without payment. A limited number of the friends of members can obtain tickets upon payment of 5s. yearly, provided they are introduced by a member of the association. The committee reserves to itself the right to withdraw at any time the privilege so granted to any person, upon re- payment to such person of a proportionate part of his or her subscription, if any, for the portion unexpired. Tickets expire on the last day of February in each year, and are renewable at the Stores only, between January 1st and March 31st, for the ensuing year. The old ticket must be given up before a new one will be issued.

Clapham.— A large and rapidly growing district on the Surrey side, of very varied cha- racter. The best part, close around the Common, stands high, and is one of the healthiest and most bracing situations in the immediate neighbourhood of London. Thence, however, the ground slopes away, and many of the houses in Clapham lie low, and in quite a different climate. The Common itself is a fine open space of about 200 acres, with several fine clumps of old trees. Rents run comparatively high, and houses in the choicer situations are not easy to obtain, the demand for them being all the greater that Clapham, which still retains something of its semi-. rural flavour, is nevertheless within the magic four-mile circle. From Victoria, 1st, -/6, -/8; 2nd, -/4, -/6; 3rd, -/2, -/4. Ludgate-hill, 1st, - /6, -/9; 2nd, -/5, -/8; 3rd, /4, -/6. King's-cross, 1st, -/8, 1/-; 2nd, -/6, -/10; 3rd, -/4, -/8. Trains run from Victoria, Ludgate-hill, Waterloo, London-bridge, and Kensington to Clapham Junction at about same fares. Omnibus Routes, High-st, Balham-hill, Clapham- rise, and King's-road; Tramway, Clapham-road.

Clare Market lies hidden behind the western side of Lincoln's-inn, and can be reached either by the turning up from the Strand next to the new law courts, or through the archway in the western side of Lincoln's-inn. It is a market without a market-house; a collection of lanes, where every shop is tenanted by a butcher or greengrocer, and where the roadways are choked with costermongers' carts. To see Clare Market at its best, it is needful to go there on Saturday evening: then the narrow lanes are crowded, then the butchers' shops are ablaze with gas-lights flaring in the air, and the shouting of the salesman and costermonger is at its loudest. Nowhere in London is a poorer population to be found than that which is contained in the quadrangle formed by the Strand, Catherine- street, Long-acre, and Lincoln's-inn and the new law courts. The greater portion of those who are pushing through the crowd to make their purchases for to-morrow's dinner are women, and of them many have children in their arm. Ill-dressed, worn, untidy, and wretched, many of them look, but they joke with their acquaintances, and are keen hands at bargaining. Follow one, and look at the meat stall before which she steps. The shop is filled with strange pieces of coarse, dark-coloured, and unwholesome-looking meat. There is scarce a piece there whose form you recognise as familiar; no legs of mutton, no sirloins of beef, no chops or steaks, or ribs or shoulders. It is meat, and you take it on faith that it is meat of the ox or sheep; but beyond that you can say nothing. The slice of bacon on the next stall is more tempting, and many prefer a rasher of this for their Sunday's dinner to the coarse meat which neither their skill in cooking nor their appliances enable them to render tender and eatable, or satisfactory to the good man who is at present drinking himself to a point of stupidity at the public-house at the corner, and spending an amount which would make all the difference in cost between the odds and ends of coarse meat and a wholesome joint. It is a relief to turn from the butchers' shops to the costermongers' barrows. Here herrings or mackerel, as the season may be— bought, perhaps, -a few hours before at Billingsgate —are selling at marvellously low prices, while the vegetables, equally cheap, look fresh and excellent in quality.

Cleopatra's Needle.— -Victoria Embankment, opposite the end of Salisbury-street, Strand, between Waterloo-bridge and Charing-cross. NEAREST Railway Station, Temple; Omnibus Routes, Waterloo-bridge and Blackfriars-bridge; Cab Rank, Embankment.

Clothworkers' Company (The), an offshoot of the Drapers and Merchant Taylors, was originally incorporated by Edward IV. as "The Fraternity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Shearmen of London." In Queen Elizabeth's reign the company was reincorporated as the Clothworkers. The present hall, which stands in Mincing-lane, was completed in 1870, and is about as gorgeous a building as its admirers could wish. The effects produced by the judicious blending of various-coloured marble, and the ingenious designs of the decorator illustrating the wealth and commerce of the nation, are the most conspicuous ornaments. Two gilded statues of deceased monarchs, which stand in the hall, could well be spared; but to these relics of a bygone art the company, we are informed, is singularly attached. In one of the reception rooms is a cartoon by Mr. Wm. Beverley representing a young apprentice saving a maiden from drowning in the river Thames. The lad's name was Osborne. His gallantry brought him the favour of master, who took him into partnership, and gave him the rescued daughter for a wife. Osborne was the ancestor of the present Duke of Leeds. Samuel Pepys was a member of the Clothworkers' Company, and gave it a silver loving-cup. The free schools belonging to the company are in the Isle Man. and at Sutton Valance.

Coaching Clubs and Road Coaches.—The Benson Driving Club, established in 1807 and broken up in 1854, consisting of twenty-five members, was the last of the old coaching clubs known to the past generation, as the Four Horse Club, which was organised a year later, expired in 1826, and the Richmond Driving Club did not last long. In 1856 however, the late Mr. Morritt succceeded in getting thirty good men together, and established the present Four-in-hand Driving Club, which soon was found to be too exclusive for the growing taste for the road, and in 1870 Mr. George Goddard and a few other gentlemen laid the foundation of the Coaching Club, which, on its first appearance in Hyde-park, turned out twenty-two drags, and last year the list of members (confined to 220) was full, with many aspirants on the books. Both clubs meet twice a year, generally at the Magazine in Hyde-park; the Four-in-hand Club's first meet being always the Wednesday before the Derby, and the other gatherings fixed later on. These clubs have no habitation or abode, but drive from their meets to dine or lunch at Greenwich, Richmond, the Alexandra and Crystal palaces or elsewhere; and the want of some congenial rendezvous was felt so much that in 1874 Major Furnival opened the Road Club in Park-place, and Mr. Hurman shortly followed suit at 100, Piccadilly, where "The Badminton" is now established, with every luxury for habitués, and capital stabling for fifty horses. The Road Club keeps a coach for the use of its members during the season, and the Badminton has always one or two teams in the yard. The Duke of Beaufort is president of both these clubs, as he also is of the Four-in-hand and Coaching Clubs. The "Brighton Age" king taken off the road in 1862, there were no stage coaches running out of London until the spring of 1866, from which date the present revival of road coaching must date, when "The Old Times" commenced the new era on the same road; and each year since there has been a steady increase, until in 1875 there were eleven coaches starting from the "White Horse Cellars," in Piccadilly; while the following (and probably more) will run during the ensuing season, viz, from about the end of April to the autumn except "The St. Albans," which runs all the year round. "The St. Albans," Mr. Selby, proprietor and coachman, leaves during the summer months at 11 am., and gets back at 6.30 p.m., giving the passengers two hours and a half for luncheon and inspection of the beautiful abbey, &c.; in the winter the times are changed to 10.30 a.m. out, and 5 p.m. back again. Sir Henry de Bathe, Major Dixon, Captain Blvthe, Mr. Wormwald, &c., are also occasionally seen driving this coach. "The Guildford," with Mr. Walter Shoolbred sole proprietor this year, with Tom Thorogood for his professional, leaves Hatchett's at 11 am., and returns to Piccadilly at 7 p.m. "The Windsor," with Messrs. Greenall and H. Bailey as proprietors, Harry Thorogood, coachman, and the well known Bob Rear as guard, leaves at 10.30 a.m., returning at 6.50 p.m. "The Dorking," Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Sheather in command, with E. Perrin as guard will commence its journey at 11.15 a.m., and get borne at 6.30 p.m. "The Box Hill," with Sir Henry de Bathe and Mr. Hunt as the amateurs, and B. Hubble as professional, will start at 10 30 am., and pull up on its return at 6.30 p.m. Another Box Hill will leave there every morning, and return from Hatchetts at 4.15 p.m., Messrs. Praed and Brand being proprietors. "The Virginia Water," running through Hounslow and Staines, will be put on the road by Captain Parker of the 18th Hussars, and will leave London at 11 a.m.1 and return at 6.45 p.m. "The Brighton" will most probably be a double coach this season, with Col. Clitherow, and Messrs. Freeman and Chandos-Pole as proprietors, John Thorogood and another as coachmen. Captain Blythe, with E. Fownes and Harry Cracknell as coachmen, will, beginning on the 5th of April, run from Oxford to Cambridge and back on alternate days, leaving either University at 9a.m., passing through Piccadilly at 2.45 p.m. where 30 min. will be allowed for luncheon, and their destination will be reached at 9 p.m. In addition to these there are rumours afloat that a coach will run to Sevenoaks; that Mr. Hoare and Lord Arthur Somerset will again bring up passengers from West Wickham, returning in the afternoon; and that coaches from Twickenham and Thames Ditton will also be on the road, up in the morning, down in the afternoon. Intending passengers by any of the above can secure their place and pay their fares, which average between 3d. and 4d. per mile, at the "White Horse Cellars," Piccadilly where the ever civil and obliging Banks Brothers are always ready to give every information.

Coal Co-operative Society Limited (Established in 1872, under "The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, 1862'), Office, 115, Chancery-lane—A company may hold shares in this society in the names of trustees. Each individual member admitted hereafter (1872), "other than persons entitled to admission," shall take up not less than fives shares, and each society, or the trustees of a company, not less than ten shares for the first 100 members, and five' shares for each additional 100 members, or fractional part thereof, on the 1st of January in each year.

Coal Exchange.—The present Coal Exchange, situated at the corner of St. Mary-at-Hill and Thames-street, facing the Custom House, was opened in 1849 by the Prince Consort, accompanied by the Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal, in the mayoralty of Alderman Duke, who was made a baronet in honour of the occasion. The building was designed by Mr. J. B. Bunning, F.S.A., the late City architect. It is in shape a rotunda, 6o ft. in diameter; it has three galleries, and is crowned by a dome 74ft. high, which rests on eight piers. The walls of the interior are decorated with views of the Wallsend, Percy, and other celebrated collieries, some of the principal ports from whence coal is shipped, and inside the dome are paintings of specimens of the flowers and fossil plants found in the coal measures. On the ga1leries are a few cases containing specimens of coral and fossil plants found in different parts of the world. The floor is made with 4,000 pieces of inlaid wood, and represents the face of a mariner compass. In the centre are the City shield, anchor, &c. ; the dagger blade in the arms being piece of a mulberry tree planted by Peter the Great when he worked as a shipwright in Deptford-dockyard. In excavating for the foundation of the present building, the remains of an old Roman bath were brought to light, which have now been enclosed, and can be seen upon application to one of the beadles. The offices in the building are occupied by coal factors, and others connected with the trade ; the three trade societies and the corporation officers, who enter all ships bringing coal into the port of London, and collect the City dues on all coal brought with in certain limits, The money collected is afterwards employed for metropolitan improvements. The Exchange is the property of the corporation, and a market is held there three days a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays and, being an open market, established by Act of Parliament, any person can obtain admission NEAREST Railway Station, Cannon-street; Omnibus Routes, King William-street, Fenchurch-street, and London-bridge; Cab Rank Fish-street-hill.

Cobden Club.—The Cobden Club has for its object the diffusion in all parts of the world of those principles with which Richard Cobden's name is associated. Election by committee. Subscription £3 3s. per annum. There is no club house.

Cocoa-Tree Club, St. James's-st—Was the Tory Chocolate House of Queen Anne's reign, the Whig Coffee House being the St. James's, lower down in the same street. There is no special qualification, the elections being in the hands of the committee which consists of seventeen members of the club, three of whom constitute a quorum. No candidate will be balloted for except during the sitting of Parliament, or at such other time as the president may appoint. When a candidate is balloted for, one black ball in the quorum of three excludes, or two in the whole Committee, but a candidate who has been black-balled may be again proposed and seconded by any two members, and may be balloted for within any period not less than six months. Entrance fee, £5 5s.; annual sub- scription, £4 4s.

Coffee Taverns.—Five years ago a company, of which Lord Shaftesbury was president, made the first attempt on a large scale to give the lower section of the inhabitants of London a chance of escape from the public-house. The object of this company was to establish attractive places of refreshment in the "more densely peopled parts of London, and elsewhere, to serve as a counter-attraction to the public-house and gin palace." It would appear, from the interesting brockure by Mr. Hepple Hall, that the enterprise for some reason or another did not succeed so well as its promoters expected, and the houses opened under the auspices of the company have since been leased to Mr. McDougall, in whose hands they seem to making satisfactory progress. In 1877 the Coffee Public House Association was organised under the presidency of the Duke of Westminster. The central agency of the association is at 40, Charing-cross. Again, to quote Mr. Hall, "adequate provision for the wants of the population of London alone requires that coffee public- houses should be numbered, not by tens or scores, but by hundreds. It is the business of the association: 1. To ascertain the localities in which Coffee Publics can be most aptly planted, and the character of the structure and fittings best suited to each locality. 2. To investigate the schemes submitted to it by those who desire its help and the claim which each scheme has upon it. 3. To make the necessary advances upon the most expedient terms, and whenever the conditions of success are sufficiently assured" It will be seen that the last-mentioned clause distinguishes this society from any other of its class. It is a promoter and encourager of coffee taverns, not a trader in them. That some such organisation was a necessity of the times may be gathered from the fact that in the United Kingdom the number of houses now open for this business is nearly 3,000, under the control of nearly 8o companies.

Coldbath Fields is the great prison of the county of Middlesex, and though covering a somewhat smaller space than the City Prison, will contain considerably more than three times as many prisoners. It is almost as good an example of the associated system as will be found, and may be seen by order from the Home Office. Its entrance is in Coldbath- square, opening out of the Bagnigge-wells. road, and is passed by the "Favorite" omnibuses, Victoria Station to Stoke Newington. It stands half-way between the King's- cross and Farringdon Stations on the Metropolitan, a few yards nearer the latter. NEAREST Cab Rank, Mount Pleasant.

College of Arms (Royal). —(See HERALDS' COLLEGE.)

College of Surgeons (Royal) Lincoln's-inn-fields, contains a fine museum, library, and lecture theatre. In the library is a portrait of Sir Caesar Hawkins, by Hogarth; and in the council-room Reynolds's portrait of John Hunter, Flaxman's posthumous bust of Hunter, and some busts by Chantrey. The museum is open on the first four days of the week (except in September), from 12 to 4 o'clock to fellows and members of the college, and to strangers introduced by them personally, or by written personal orders. It originated in the purchase by Parliament of John Hunter's museum. In addition to the preparations illustrating the normal and abnormal structures of the human frame, there are illustrations of vegetable and animal structures and forms. Amongst the numerous curiosities are the skeletons of giants (the tallest 8 feet high) and dwarfs; the diseased intestines of Napoleon; some Egyptian and other mummies; the embalmed body of the first wife of Martin van Butchell, prepared by injecting the vascular system with oil of turpentine and camphorated spirits of wine; and the skeleton of the gigantic elephant Chunee, formerly exhibited in London. NEAREST Railway Station: Temple; Omnibus Routes, High Holborn and Strand; Cab Rank, Newman's - row, Lincoln's-inn-fields.

Colney Hatch – a fairly pretty northern suburb, chiefly noted as the site of the second greet Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum, covering 25 acres of ground, and containing some 2,000 patients; the station is called "Southgate". Rents moderate. From King's. cross (21 min) sit, -/11, 1/6; 2nd, -/9, 1/3; 3rd, -/6.

Colonial Office, Downing-st. NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster-bridge and Charing-cross (S.E. and Dist.); Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Parliament. street; Cab Rank, Palace-yard.

Columbia, British - AGENCY-GENERAL, Gracechurch. buildings. NEAREST Railway, Stations, Mansion House (Metrop. Dist.) and Cannon-street (S.E,); Omnibus Routes, Gracechurch-street and Cornhill; Cab Rank, St. Helen's-place.

Columbia, United States of —MINISTRY, 45, Kensington-gardens-square. NEAREST Railway Station, Queen's-road, Bayswater; Omnibus Routes, Westbourne-grove and Uxbridge-road; Cab Rank, Pickering-place, Westbourne-grove. CONSULATE, 3, St. Helen's-place. NEAREST Railway Station, Bishopsgate; Omnibus Route, Bishopsgate- st; Cab Rank, Opposite.

Commissionaires.—Office, 419, Strand, about 200 yards cast of Charing-cross Station on opposite side of the way. The corps is formed of retired soldiers and sailors, of first- class character only, and is strictly disciplined. TARIFF FOR COMMISSIONAIRES ON PUBLIC POSTS.—By Distance: Half a mile or under, 2d.; one mile, or over half, 3d. By Time: 6d per hour or 2d per quarter ditto When taken by time, the commissionaire is to do 2 ½ miles per hour if walking. Should the employer pay the fare of a commissionaire by rail, boat, or omnibus he may require him to execute his duty by the time tariff. This will be calculated according to the time actually consumed in his going from and returning to his post. N. B—For distances exceeding three miles, employers will find better to avail themselves of the "time tariff;" this, however, must be stipulated at the time of engagement. By Day of 10 bouts, 3s. 6d.; half day, 2s. 6d. No return fare except when employed, or if sent more than three miles from post. The commissionaire may charge 1d. per utile for every 7 lbs. Exceeding 1 stone up to 56 lbs. in sending parcels, &c., employers are requested to note the time of despatch on the outside, in order that the receiver may ascertain whether any delay has occurred. The usual rate of walking, when the man is not engaged by time, may be taken at 3 ½ mile per hour, or five per boat or omnibus. N.B.—Delivery of circulars according to agreement. Terms can be obtained only at the office, no commissionaire being allowed to deliver them without authority. In cases where the "carriage of over-weight" together with the ordinary charge of 3d. per mile, exceeds the tariff of a cab, viz.6d, the commissionaire is not entitled to charge more than 9d. per mile, and must avail himself of a cab or other conveyance if his employer desires it. N.B.—The safe delivery of all property entrusted to the men (not exceeding £10 in value) is guaranteed. This amount of security will be increased, where men weaning chevrons are engaged, according to the following scale;— Commissionaires of the first class, £15; corporals £20; sergeants, £25. For a complete list of the tariffs of the corps, and for the permanent or temporary engagement of its members, see the "Annual Circular" of the corps, issued at the office. N.B.—All communications on business must be addressed to the adjutant. COMPLAINTS.—In case of any complaint it will be necessary to forward the ticket of the commissionaire against whom any charge is made. Each commissionaire is furnished with a book of tickets containing the tariff. Employers are particularly requested, whenever they engage a man, to demand one of them. It is hoped that any instance of overcharge or irregularity will be reported to the adjutant without delay. Several men who have been dismissed for misconduct having assumed a dress somewhat similar to that of the corps, for the express purpose of imposing on employers, gentlemen are particularly requested, before they engage the services of any man in uniform, to demand the production of the ticket book, and ascertain if he is a commissionaire. The sergeants, corporals, and commissionaires of the first class are distinguished by chevrons of sold lace. Special men are appointed to act as guides to strangers about London. Apply at the office. N.B. — Employers requiring a commissionaire for more than half a day should send a postal card to the adjutant informing him of their requirements. For the convenience of the public, and to promote uniformity of system throughout the corps, the following scale of wages is authorized for the different classes of commissionaires in permanent and temporary employment in the metropolis and large manufacturing towns. In the country districts, where house rent and the cost of living generally is less expensive, a commensurate reduction will be made. Commissionaires whose bodily health, either from wounds or other causes, unfits them for ordinary labour, may be engaged for light work at lower wages.

PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT.
(Per week)
Sergeants of the 1st class £1 5 0
Sergeants .. £ 1 4 0
Corporals of the 1st class £ 1 3 0
Corporals of the 2nd class £ 1 2 0
First class commissionaires £ 1 1 0
Commissionaires .. £ 1 0 0
TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT.
In the London or other division.
Per day // Half day
Sergeants.. ..4s 3d // 3s
Corporals and 1st class 4s // 3s 6d
If sent out of their district:
Per day // per week
Sergeants .. 5s // 25s
Corporals and 1st class 4s 6d // 22ss

When sent out of his own district for more than twelve hours, the commissionaire can charge only his actual fare for travelling, with an addition, for sergeants of 8d per diem, corporals and other men, 6d for finding bed, &c. N.B. — The tariff for "permanent employment" is intended for those cases where an engagement is expected to last for a year. Ten per cent. will be added to the above rate where any man is discharged within six months (except in any case of misconduct), or where be is engaged for the "season" only. Where whole "board" is given, a deduction of 1s. 4d. per diem, or 9s. per week, will be made; "dinner" only 5s. per week. Board and lodging, 12s. per week. The "season" refers to engagements in London between the months of January and August. The above tariff does not apply to commissionaires of special attainments and high education whose salaries would range from 30s. to 50s. per week. Nor is it to be understood by employers that the printed standard of wages precludes engagements between themselves and commissionaires on such terms as may be found mutually suitable. The value of labour and its remuneration depends on so many circumstances that it would be most undesirable to fetter the right of contract. Employers are reminded that the corps guarantees the honesty and sobriety of all its members, that in case of the illness of a commissionaire his place is provided for without any cost to them and that in the event of his death (owing to the provision made for his family) there is no prospect of any claim being made upon them or the support of those left behind.
SPECIAL NOTICE TO EMPLOYERS.
The object of the corps being to provide suitable work for all its members whatever their qualifications and bodily health, and at the same time to suit the convenience of employers whose requirements may be of an occasional or easy nature, the adjutant will at all times endeavour to provide commissionaires for situations where the amount of wages is limited to the work required, and therefore below any of the published rates.
LIST OF TARIFFS FOR SPECIAL SERVICES.
Service of Commissionaires for the Continent. — Employers requiring trustworthy men to take charge of papers, property, &c., to any part of the Continent, will be supplied with members of the corps at the following rate of wages: Ten shillings per diem, with a extra allowance of 6d. per hour for all time occupied in travelling over 12 hours in each day of 24 hours The actual (2nd class) fare incurred by railway or steamboat. None but staff- sergeants of the corps will be employed on this duty, and if employed beyond the week a reduction in these terms will be made. Hospital Service. — Commissionaires employed as temporary attendants at the hospitals in the metropolis will be paid at the following rate: 12 hours' duty by day, 4s.; ditto night, 5s. For a continuous service of one week and upwards the wages will be: Day service, 25s. night service, 28s. Where full rations are given, 1s. per diem will be deducted from the above amount. Service at Theatres and other Public Places of Amusement.—Commissionaires will be supplied in the capacity of ticket-takers, money-takers, door-keepers, &c., at wages varying from 2s. to 3s. per night, according to the time and nature of the employment. The fidelity and sobriety of these men being ensured, upwards of 150 men are now employed in the above capacity. Service of Night Watchmen, &c. The watching of docks and other premises of public companies, as well as streets and private houses in the metropolitan district, is effectually carried out by the relief and constant visiting of the commissionaires during the night by staff-sergeants of the corps. For this particular service a small extra charge is made. The ordinary wages of watchmen are as follows: Night duty inside premises, 3s. 6d. per night, or 23s. per week; outside premises, 4s. per night, or 26s. per week. Empty houses taken care of at 5s. per week, with an extra allowance of 2s 6d. where light and fuel are not found. Special arrangements are made for special services or for large bodies of men. N B—For delivery beyond the 3 mile radius a small additional charge will be made, or men furnished at 4s per diem.
NB—Circulars directed at 1s. per 100; folded at 4d. per 100. All addressed circulars must be fully directed, and have the initials of the postal district. If not tied up by streets an additional charge of 4d. per 100 will be made for sorting. Contracts made with societies and companies for large orders or periodical service. A sergeant in charge of the "circular department" will attend to receive orders when required. All circulars and cards must be sent in to the office of each division, no commissionaire being allowed to deliver them without proper registration.
The band of the corps, or any part of it, may be enraged for private parties, either in the metropolis or the country. Applications for terms, &c., to the sergeant in charge of the band, Exchange-court, 419, Strand, W.C.
Books, printed circulars, visiting cards, and newspapers are delivered. with despatch by the commissionaires at the following scale (which applies only to a radius of 3 miles from Charing-cross). Books, &c. over a quarter of a pound in weight charged extra.

RATE PER HUNDRED.

Districts

100 to 200

200 to 1,000

1,000 to 2,000

2,000 to 5,000

5,000 to 10,000

10,000 to 15,000

15,000 and upwards

HOUSE TO HOUSE

1,000 to 20,000 not addressed

Above 20,000 not addressed

All over London --

..

5s

4s

3s

2s 6d

2s

1s 6d

9d

6d

W SW,WC., E.C

4s

3s

2s 6d

2s

1s 6d

1s

9d

6d

..

N.W. N.E., S.E., N., S.&E

4s

3s 6d

3s

2s 6d

2s

1s 6d

1s

6d

..

NIGHT SERVICE, from 10 p.m. to 7 am. An orderly being on duty all night, anyone requiring a commissionaire may obtain one by applying at the head-quarters of the corps, 419, Strand. The tariff for night service in such cases is double the ordinary rate. SPECIAL N0TICE—Several sergeants who will terminate their temporary engagements at the close of the London season, can be specially recommended for duties of almost any kind. For further information apply to the adjutant.

Commissioners of Sewers, Guildhall.—NEAREST Railway Stations, Mansion House and Moorgate-street; OmnibusRoutes, Cheapside and MoorgateStreet; Cab Rank, Lothbury.

Commissioners of Works, 12, Whitehall- place, SW., with subdivision Royal Parks and Gardens.—NEAREST Railway Station, Charing-cross. Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Parliament-street; Cab Rank, Horse Guards.

Committee of Council on Education, Whitehall, SW., with subdivisions, Scotch Education Department, and Inspectors of Schools. The Science and Art Department is at South Kensington. NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster-bridge; Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Parliament-street; Cab Rank, Horse Guards.