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Japan.—MINISTRY, Kensington-park-gardens. Railway Station, High-Street Kensington; Omnibus Routes: Archer-street and Uxbridge-road; Cab Rank, Stanley-gardens. CONSULATE, 84, Bishopsgate-street-within. NEAREST Railway Stat. Bishopsgate; Omnibus Route: Bishopsgate-street and Cornhill. Cab Rank, St. Helens-place.
Jews.—The tangible benefits which flow from civil and religious liberty may be seen in the improved social and political status of the Jews of London, since the abolition of the Test Acts and the passing of the Jewish Emancipation Bill. Until within a comparatively recent period the Jews were deprived of the privileges of the universities; and as that of the capital was the first to break down the barrier of caste, the Jews affect the University of London more than any other sea of learning in the United Kingdom. A large number of Jewish youths pass through the City of London School, whence they have carried off many of the most important prizes, scholarships, &c. The community have their own college for the study of the Hebrew language and Rabbinical law in Creechurch-lane, Leadenhall-street. Within the memory of living men the Jews of the metropolis were scarcely ever to be found resident outside their own quarter, at the east end of the city, embracing Bevis Marks, Aldgate, Houndsditch, the Minories, Haydon-square (twenty-five years ago a garden surrounded with substantial houses, now a busy railway centre), Goodman’s-fields, Whitechapel, Petticoat-lane (since called Middlesex-street, but dear to the heart of Israel as “the lane “), part of Spitalfields, &c. A large number of rich Jewish families have migrated from the “four streets” (rows of handsomely appointed residences, which encompassed Goodman’s-fields, formerly a green space used as a military exercising ground, but since built over), and taken up their quarters in Bloomsbury and Maida-vale. So plentiful are Jewish households in she south-west district, that certain streets and terraces where they have formed colonies are playfully called the “New Jerusalem.” Social persecution kept the chosen people together as in a sort of Ghetto; but the large spirit of toleration has scattered them broadcast over the City. As a people they are much less orthodox than formerly. Indeed the London Jews are probably the most liberal of their race. Rag Fair, as it is called, the greatest old clothes market of the metropolis, is held in an open space close to Houndsditch. Sunday morning is its busiest time. There are also Sunday morning bazaars, for the sale of second-hand jewellery and plate, held in public rooms of certain well known Jewish coffee-houses of the district, where valuable and portable property readily changes hands. Houndsditch is the head-quarters of the fancy warehousemen, mostly Jews, who supply the hawkers and small shopkeepers of London with combs, razors, sponges and mock jewellery for the ornamentation of the ambitious poor and others. An immense trade in new and second-hand clothing, and in new boots, shoes, furs, caps, &c., for exportation to the colonies, is carried on in this quarter, and by the chosen people. The London artisan often purchases the tools of his trade in Petticoat-lane on Sunday mornings; where also may be bought the highly spiced confectionery in which the children of Israel delight—the brown and sweet “butter cake,” the flaccid “bola,” the “stuffed monkey,” and a special pudding made of eggs and ground almonds. The poorer Jews of London eat Spanish olives and Dutch cucumbers pickled in salt and water, as food rather than as a relish. They love herrings steeped in brine, German sausage, the dried flesh of beef and mutton, smoked salmon, and, indeed, fish of all sorts, stewed with lemons and eggs, or fried in oil. Every Jewish luxury may be obtained in perfection in Petticoat-lane, besides “cosher” meat, and matsaz or unleavened cakes, used at the Feast of the Passover, which falls about Eastertide. The Jews slaughter their beasts by cutting the animal’s throat; the butchers being an inferior sort of rabbi, who affix the seal of the synagogue to every portion of the carcase. The rabbis are also most particular in supervising the manufacture of the unleavened bread, the mere suspicion of fermentation being sufficient to induce them to condemn a batch of it as unfit to be eaten during the solemn festival of the Passover. Raw and fried fish are staple commodities of “the lane,” and several fried-fishmongers have been known to amass large fortunes. “Cosher” rum and shrub, and liqueurs, such as cloves, aniseed, noyeau, &c., of which the Jews are exceedingly fond, may he obtained in this quarter. Drunkenness, however, is an offence all but unknown. The Jews of London are among the best fathers, sons, and husbands in the metropolis. They are a most affectionate, home-staying, sober people; but their thrift has been much overrated. Fond of display, extravagant in their habits, and given over to good living, the Jews are often poor. Their poverty, however, is seldom obtrusive because of their many noble charities, the personal generosity of the great families among them, and their own natural secretiveness. Besides the sums distributed by the Jewish Board of Guardians in connection with the great synagogue in Duke’s-place, Aldgate, the community of London Jews support a Convalescent Home, a Ladies’ Benevolent Society, a Home for the Deaf and Dumb, a house for the distribution of “cosher” food to the poor, an Orphan Asylum, and three separate free schools for boys and girls. Independently of the great synagogue there are nearly a dozen Jewish places of worship in the metropolis; the principal ones being situated in Bevis Marks, Fenchurch-street, Portland-road, Berkeley-street, Barnsbury, Bayswater, &c. The Jews are divided into sects, all agreeing as to the fundamentals of faith, but having somewhat different customs and ceremonies. They include the Portugese, Polish, and German Jews, and a branch called seceders, whose ritual probably more nearly approaches the Temple service than that of any of the others. There are shops for the sale of Hebrew books, and articles used in the rites of the synagogue, in Bevis Marks and Bloomsbury. The Jews of London support two newspapers, The Jewish Chronicle and The Jewish World, and they have several burial grounds devoted exclusively to their own use. They have no need of funeral reform, their religion enjoining the greatest simplicity in burying the dead; the use of feathers and bands is never permitted, and the coffin is always of plain unpainted and on-draped wood. Thus, the Jews of London, even when ostentatious in life, practise humility in death.
Judge Advocate-General’s Office.—This department is charged with the administration of military law. The office is at 35, Great George-street, SW., and the hours are from 10 to 4. NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster-bridge; Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Victoria-Street; Cab Rank, Palace-yard.
Junior Army and Navy Club.—Members must be commissioned officers in the Regular Army, Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Indian Forces, and those who may have retired from the same, or midshipmen of the Royal Navy who have attained the age of 17 years. The admission is by ballot, one black ball in ten excluding. Entrance fee, £10 10s.; subscription, £7 7s.
Junior Athenaeum Club, Piccadilly, W., occupies the house once inhabited by the late Duke of Newcastle, and built at extraordinary cost by his father-in-law, the late Mr. Adrian Hope. Members of both Houses of Parliament, members of the universities, fellows of the learned and scientific Societies, and gentlemen connected with literature, science, and art are eligible for election. The members elect by ballot. “No ballot shall be valid unless at least twenty members actually vote. One black ball shall annul ten votes, a tie shall exclude.” Entrance fee, £31 10s.; annual subscription, £10 10s.
Junior Carlton, Pall-mall, is a political club in strict connection with the Conservative party, and designed to promote its objects. Gentlemen of position who acknowledge the recognised leaders of the Conservative party are alone eligible as candidates. Entrance fee (including subscription to library), £28 7s.; subscription, £10 10s.
Junior Garrick Club, Adelphi - terrace. — Proprietary. “All members of the dramatic profession or any branch of the dramatic art, as actors, vocalists, dramatic authors, managers of theatres, acting managers, composers, instrumental performers, and scenic artists, practically pursuing or having practically followed as their vocation any of the above branches of dramatic profession, shall always be eligible for admission as members of the club.” The committee elect. Entrance fee, £3 3s.; subscription, £4 4s. ; country members, £2 2s.
Junior Oxford and Cambridge Club. — Proprietary. Present and former members of, and gentlemen holding honorary degrees from, the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and from. Trinity College, Dublin, are eligible as members. Election by-committee. Subscription (town members), £8 8s.
Junior United Services Club, Pall Mall, consists of the princes of the blood royal, commissioned officers of the Navy, Army, Marines, Royal Indian Forces, and Regular Militia, Lieutenants of Counties, sub-lieutenants in the Army and midshipmen in the Navy. No officer is eligible for admission to the club who is not on full, half or retired full-pay of the Navy, Army, Marines, or Royal Indian Forces; or who, if an officer of Militia, has not one year’s embodied service or attended three regular trainings, certified by the commanding officer, adjutant, or paymaster of the regiment. No retired officer, whose name has been entered as a candidate before he retired, can be put up for ballot unless be has served for five years; and no officer of Militia who has not previously belonged to the regular forces unless he is actually serving. Entrance fee, £40; Subscription, £7 7s. Every member has the privilege of introducing three friends to lunch or dine with him, so far as the accommodation set apart for this purpose will admit.