Victorian London - Populations - Census - 1861

According to the census of 1861, London contained a population of 2,803,034 souls, occupying 362,890 inhabited houses (against 2,362,236 population, and 305,933 houses, in 1851), formed into upwards of 10,500 streets. lanes, squares, &c. The increase of population in ten years was 440,798. The average of deaths is 1300 weekly; of births, 1800. To provide for so enormous an aggregate of men, women, and children, there are 30,000 bakers, 40,000 grocers, 24,000 tailors, 42,000 dressmakers and milliners, 29,000 bootmakers, and 170,000 cooks (professed - and plain), housemaids, valets, butlers, and other domestic servants. 13,000 cows supply milk and cream; 6,000,000 tons of coals feed the fires; nearly 400,000 gas-lights, consuming every twenty-four hours 13,500,000 cubic feet of gas, at an average cost of 4s. 6d. per thousand, illumine the streets of London ; 44,000,000 gallons of porter, 2,000,000 gallons of spirits, and 65,000 pipes of wine, are annually consumed; while to balance this surprising quantity of fluid, our purveyors slaughter for us 36,000 pigs, 29,000 calves, 250,000 oxen, and nearly 2,000,000 of sheep. Farmers, at home or abroad, furnish us with 1,600,000 quarters of wheat; our woods and preserves with 5,000,000 head of game; and our fishermen send us 3,000,000 salmon, with such quantities of cod, and plaice, and soles, and herrings, that we dare not perplex our readers with their figures.

Cruchley's London in 1865 : A Handbook for Strangers, 1865