[... back to menu for this book]
SAUCES, PICKLES, GRAVIES, AND FORCEMEATS.
ANCHOVY SAUCE FOR FISH.
362. INGREDIENTS.--4 anchovies, 1 oz. of
butter, 1/2 pint of melted butter, cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a mortar to a paste, with 1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot, stir in the pounded anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes; and if liked, add a squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and expeditious way of making this sauce is to stir in 1-1/2 tablespoonfuls of anchovy essence to 1/2 pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning to taste. Boil the whole up for 1 minute, and serve hot.
Time.--5 minutes. Average cost, 5d. for 1/2 pint.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a brill, small turbot, 3 or 4 soles, &c.
ANCHOVY BUTTER (See No. 227).
CAYENNE.--This is the most acrid and stimulating spice with which we are acquainted. It is a powder prepared from several varieties of the capsicum annual East-India plants, of which there are three so far naturalized in this country as to be able to grow in the open air: these are the Guinea, the Cherry, and the Bell pepper. All the pods of these are extremely pungent to the taste, and in the green state are used by us as a pickle. When ripe, they are ground into cayenne pepper, and sold as a condiment. The best of this, however, is made in the West Indies, from what is called the Bird pepper, on account of hens and turkeys being extremely partial to it. It is imported ready for use. Of the capiscum species of plants there are five; but the principal are,--1. Capsicum annuum, the common long-podded capsicum, which is cultivated in our gardens, and of which there are two varieties, one with red, and another with yellow fruit. 2. Capsicum baccatum, or bird pepper, which rises with a shrubby stalk four or five feet high, with its berries growing at the division of the branches: this is small, oval-shaped, and of a bright-red colour, from which, as we have said, the best cayenne is made. 3. Capsicum grossum, the bell-pepper: the fruit of this is red, and is the only kind fit for pickling.
APPLE SAUCE FOR GEESE, PORK, &c.
363. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, sifted
sugar to taste, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, water.
Mode.--Pare, core, and quarter the apples, and throw them into cold water to preserve their whiteness. Put them in a saucepan, with sufficient water to moisten them, and boil till soft enough to pulp. Beat them up, adding sugar to taste, and a small piece of butter This quantity is sufficient for a good-sized tureen.
Time.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. Average cost, 4d.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a goose or couple of ducks.
BROWN APPLE SAUCE.
364. INGREDIENTS.--6 good-sized apples, 1/2
pint of brown gravy, cayenne to taste.
Mode. Put the gravy in a stewpan, and add the apples, after having pared, cored, and quartered them. Let them simmer gently till tender; beat them to a pulp, and season with cayenne. This sauce is preferred by many to the preceding.
Time.--According to the apples, about 3/4 hour. Average cost, 6d.
365. INGREDIENTS.--1 bunch of green asparagus,
salt, 1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 small bunch of parsley, 3 or 4 green onions, 1
large lump of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of sauce tournée.
Mode.--Break the asparagus in the tender part, wash well, and put them into boiling salt and water to render them green. When they are tender, take them out, and put them into cold water; drain them on a cloth till all moisture is absorbed from them. Put the butter in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; lay in the asparagus, and fry the whole over a sharp fire for 5 minutes. Add salt, the sugar and sauce tournée, and simmer for another 5 minutes. Rub all through a tammy, and if not a very good colour, use a little spinach green. This sauce should be rather sweet.
Time.--Altogether 40 minutes.
Average cost for this quantity, 1s. 4d.
ASPIC, or ORNAMENTAL SAVOURY JELLY.
366. INGREDIENTS.--4 lbs. of knuckle of veal,
1 cow-heel, 3 or 4 slices of ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1
faggot of savoury herbs, 1 glass of sherry, 3 quarts of water; seasoning to
taste of salt and whole white pepper; 3 eggs.
Mode.--Lay the ham on the bottom of a stewpan, cut up the veal and cow-heel into small pieces, and lay them on the ham; add the poultry trimmings, vegetables, herbs, sherry, and water, and let the whole simmer very gently for 4 hours, carefully taking away all scum that may rise to the surface; strain through a fine sieve, and pour into an earthen pan to get cold. Have ready a clean stewpan, put in the jelly, and be particular to leave the sediment behind, or it will not be clear. Add the whites of 3 eggs, with salt and pepper, to clarify; keep stirring over the fire, till the whole becomes very white; then draw it to the side, and let it stand till clear. When this is the case, strain it through a cloth or jelly-bag, and use it for moulding poultry, etc. (See Explanation of French Terms, page 44.) Tarragon vinegar may be added to give an additional flavour.
Time.--Altogether 4-1/2 hours. Average cost for this quantity, 4s.
WHITE PEPPER.--This is the produce of the same plant as that which produces the black pepper, from which it is manufactured by steeping this in lime and water, and rubbing it between the hands till the coats come off. The best berries only will bear this operation; hence the superior qualities of white pepper fetch a higher price than those of the other. It is less acrid than the black, and is much prized among the Chinese. It is sometimes adulterated with rice-flour, as the black is with burnt bread. The berries of the pepper-plant grow in spikes of from twenty to thirty, and are, when ripe, of a bright-red colour. After being gathered, which is done when they are green, they are spread out in the sun, where they dry and become black and shrivelled, when they are ready for being prepared for the market.
BECHAMEL, or FRENCH WHITE SAUCE.
367. INGREDIENTS.--1 small bunch of parsley, 2
cloves, 1/2 bay-leaf, 1 small faggot of savoury herbs, salt to taste; 3 or 4
mushrooms, when obtainable; 2 pints of white stock, 1 pint of cream, 1
tablespoonful of arrowroot.
Mode.--Put the stock into a stewpan, with the parsley, cloves, bay-leaf, herbs, and mushrooms; add a seasoning of salt, but no pepper, as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance, and should be avoided. When it has boiled long enough to extract the flavour of the herbs, etc., strain it, and boil it up quickly again, until it is nearly half-reduced. Now mix the arrowroot smoothly with the cream, and let it simmer very gently for 5 minutes over a slow fire; pour to it the reduced stock, and continue to simmer slowly for 10 minutes, if the sauce be thick. If, on the contrary, it be too thin, it must be stirred over a sharp fire till it thickens. This is the foundation of many kinds of sauces, especially white sauces. Always make it thick, as you can easily thin it with cream, milk, or white stock.
Time.--Altogether, 2 hours. Average cost, 1s. per pint.
THE CLOVE.--The clove-tree is a native of the Molucca Islands, particularly Amboyna, and attains the height of a laurel-tree, and no verdure is ever seen under it. From the extremities of the branches quantities of flowers grow, first white; then they become green, and next red and hard, when they have arrived at their clove state. When they become dry, they assume a yellowish hue, which subsequently changes into a dark brown. As an aromatic, the clove is highly stimulating, and yields an abundance of oil. There are several varieties of the clove; the best is called the royal clove, which is scarce, and which is blacker and smaller than the other kinds. It is a curious fact, that the flowers, when fully developed, are quite inodorous, and that the real fruit is not in the least aromatic. The form is that of a nail, having a globular head, formed of the four petals of the corolla, and four leaves of the calyx not expanded, with a nearly cylindrical germen, scarcely an inch in length, situate below.
BECHAMEL MAIGRE, or WITHOUT MEAT.
368. INGREDIENTS.--2 onions, 1 blade of mace,
mushroom trimmings, a small bunch of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/2 pint
of water, 1 pint of milk, salt, the juice of 1 lemon, 2 eggs.
Mode.--Put in a stewpan the milk, and 1/2 pint of water, with the onions, mace, mushrooms, parsley, and salt. Let these simmer gently for 20 minutes. In the mean time, rub on a plate 1 oz. of flour and butter; put it to the liquor, and stir it well till it boils up; then place it by the side of the fire, and continue stirring until it is perfectly smooth. Now strain it through a sieve into a basin, after which put it back in the stewpan, and add the lemon-juice. Beat up the yolks of the eggs with about 4 dessertspoonfuls of milk; strain this to the sauce, keep stirring it over the fire, but do not let it boil, lest it curdle.
Time.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. Average cost, 5d. per pint.
This is a good sauce to pour over boiled fowls when they are a bad colour.
369. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover
the beets, 2 oz. of whole pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar.
Mode.--Wash the beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick the outside skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them into boiling water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts done, which will be in 1-1/2 hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil the vinegar with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for ten minutes, and when cold, pour it on the beets, which must be peeled and cut into slices about 1/2 inch thick. Cover with bladder to exclude the air, and in a week they will be fit for use.
Average cost, 3s. per gallon.
BLACK PEPPER.--This well-known aromatic spice is the fruit of a species of climbing vine, and is a native of the East Indies, and is extensively cultivated in Malabar and the eastern islands of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and others in the same latitude. It was formerly confined to these countries, but it has now been introduced to Cayenne. It is generally employed as a condiment; but it should never be forgotten, that, even in small quantities, it produces detrimental effects on inflammatory constitutions. Dr. Paris, in his work on Diet, says, "Foreign spices were not intended by Nature for the inhabitants of temperate climes; they are heating, and highly stimulant. I am, however, not anxious to give more weight to this objection than it deserves. Man is no longer the child of Nature, nor the passive inhabitant of any particular region. He ranges over every part of the globe, and elicits nourishment from the productions of every climate. Nature is very kind in favouring the growth of those productions which are most likely to answer our local wants. Those climates, for instance, which engender endemic diseases, are, in general, congenial to the growth of plants that operate as antidotes to them. But if we go to the East for tea, there is no reason why we should not go to the West for sugar. The dyspeptic invalid, however, should be cautious in their use; they may afford temporary benefit, at the expense of permanent mischief. It has been well said, that the best quality of spices is to stimulate the appetite, and their worst to destroy, by insensible degrees, the tone of the stomach. The intrinsic goodness of meats should always be suspected when they require spicy seasonings to compensate for their natural want of sapidity." The quality of pepper is known by rubbing it between the hands: that which withstands this operation is good, that which is reduced to powder by it is bad. The quantity of pepper imported into Europe is very great.
BENTON SAUCE (to serve with Hot or Cold Roast Beef).
370. INGREDIENTS.--1 tablespoonful of scraped
horseradish, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
Mode.--Grate or scrape the horseradish very fine, and mix it with the other ingredients, which must be all well blended together; serve in a tureen. With cold meat, this sauce is a very good substitute for pickles.
Average cost for this quantity, 2d.
BREAD SAUCE (to serve with Roast Turkey, Fowl,
371. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 3/4 of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1 onion; pounded mace, cayenne, and salt to taste; 1 oz. of butter.
Mode.--Peel and quarter the onion, and simmer it in the milk till perfectly tender. Break the bread, which should be stale, into small pieces, carefully picking out any hard outside pieces; put it in a very clean saucepan, strain the milk over it, cover it up, and let it remain for an hour to soak. Now beat it up with a fork very smoothly, add a seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt, with 1 oz. of butter; give the whole one boil, and serve. To enrich this sauce, a small quantity of cream may be added just before sending it to table.
Time.--Altogether, 1-3/4 hour.
Average cost for this quantity, 4d.
Sufficient to serve with a turkey, pair of fowls, or brace of partridges.
MACE.--This is the membrane which surrounds the shell of the nutmeg. Its general qualities are the same as those of the nutmeg, producing an agreeable aromatic odour, with a hot and acrid taste. It is of an oleaginous nature, is yellowish in its hue, and is used largely as a condiment. In "Beeton's Dictionary" we find that the four largest of the Banda Islands produce 150,000 lbs. of it annually, which, with nutmegs, are their principal articles of export.
372. INGREDIENTS.--Giblets of poultry, 3/4 lb. of the crumb of a stale loaf, 1 onion, 12 whole peppers, 1 blade of mace, salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream or melted butter, 1 pint of water.
Mode.--Put the giblets, with the head, neck, legs, &c., into a stewpan; add the onion, pepper, mace, salt, and rather more than 1 pint of water. Let this simmer for an hour, when strain the liquor over the bread, which should be previously grated or broken into small pieces. Cover up the saucepan, and leave it for an hour by the side of the fire; then beat the sauce up with a fork until no lumps remain, and the whole is nice and smooth. Let it boil for 3 or 4 minutes; keep stirring it until it is rather thick; when add 3 tablespoonfuls of good melted butter or cream, and serve very hot.
Time.--2-1/4 hours. Average cost, 6d.
BROWNING FOR GRAVIES AND SAUCES.
373. The browning for soups (See No. 108) answers equally well for sauces and gravies, when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in this manner; but where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup, wine, browned flour, tomatoes, or any colour sauce, it is far preferable. As, however, in cooking, so much depends on appearance, perhaps it would be as well for the inexperienced cook to use the artificial means (No. 108). When no browning is at hand, and you wish to heighten the colour of your gravy, dissolve a lump of sugar in an iron spoon over a sharp fire; when it is in a liquid state, drop it into the sauce or gravy quite hot. Care, however, must be taken not to put in too much, as it would impart a very disagreeable flavour.
BEURRE NOIR, or BROWNED BUTTER (a French Sauce).
374. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1
tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to
Mode.--Put the butter into a fryingpan over a nice clear fire, and when it smokes, throw in the parsley, and add the vinegar and seasoning. Let the whole simmer for a minute or two, when it is ready to serve. This is a very good sauce for skate.
375. Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes.
376. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, 1 wineglassful of water, salt to taste.
Mode.--Cut the butter up into small pieces, put it in a saucepan, dredge over the flour, and add the water and a seasoning of salt; stir it one way constantly till the whole of the ingredients are melted and thoroughly blended. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the butter is to be melted with cream, use the same quantity as of water, but omit the flour; keep stirring it, but do not allow it to boil.
Time.--1 minute to simmer.
Average cost for this quantity, 4d.
377. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to taste, 1/2 pint of water.
Mode.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, which put into a saucepan. Add the butter and a seasoning of salt, keep stirring one way till all the ingredients are melted and perfectly smooth; let the whole boil for a minute or two, and serve.
Time.--2 minutes to simmer.
Average cost for this quantity, 2d.
MELTED BUTTER (the French Sauce Blanche).
378. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of fresh butter, 1
tablespoonful of flour, salt to taste, 1/2 gill of water, 1/2 spoonful of white
vinegar, a very little grated nutmeg.
Mode.--Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter, carefully rubbing down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear. Put it in a saucepan with all the other ingredients, and let it thicken on the fire, but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste of the flour.
Time.--1 minute to simmer.
Average cost, 5d. for this quantity.
NUTMEG.--This is a native of the Moluccas, and was long kept from being spread in other places by the monopolizing spirit of the Dutch, who endeavoured to keep it wholly to themselves by eradicating it from every other island. We find it stated in "Beeton's Dictionary of Universal Information," under the article "Banda Islands," that the four largest are appropriated to the cultivation of nutmegs, of which about 500,000 lbs. are annually produced. The plant, through the enterprise of the British, has now found its way into Penang and Bencooleu, where it flourishes and produces well. It has also been tried to be naturalized in the West Indies, and it bears fruit all the year round. There are two kinds of nutmeg,--one wild, and long and oval-shaped, the other cultivated, and nearly round. The best is firm and hard, and has a strong aromatic odour, with a hot and acrid taste. It ought to be used with caution by those who are of paralytic or apoplectic habits.
379.--INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of melted butter,
No. 376, the yolks of 2 eggs, a little lemon-juice.
Mode.--Make the butter quite hot, and be careful not to colour it. Well whisk the yolks of the eggs, pour them to the butter, beating them all the while. Make the sauce hot over the fire, but do not let it boil; add a squeeze of lemon-juice.
MELTED BUTTER MADE WITH MILK.
380. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of flour, 2
oz. butter, 1/3 pint of milk, a few grains of salt.
Mode.--Mix the butter and flour smoothly together on a plate, put it into a lined saucepan, and pour in the milk. Keep stirring it one way over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly for a minute or two, and it is ready to serve. This is a very good foundation for onion, lobster, or oyster sauce: using milk instead of water makes it look so much whiter and more delicate.
Time.--Altogether, 10 minutes. Average cost for this quantity, 3d.
381. INGREDIENTS.--1 head of garlic, 1/2 oz.
cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar,
cochineal to colour.
Mode.--Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients, into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, to exclude the air.
Average cost for this quantity, 8d.
CAPER SAUCE FOR BOILED MUTTON.
382. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter
(No. 376), 3 tablespoonfuls of capers or nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their
Mode.--Chop the capers twice or thrice, and add them, with their liquor, to 1/2 pint of melted butter, made very smoothly; keep stirring well; let the sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled nasturtium-pods are fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference to capers. They make an excellent sauce.
Time.--2 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 8d.
Sufficient to serve with a leg of mutton.
CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH.
383. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter
No. 376, 3 dessertspoonfuls of capers, 1 dessertspoonful of their liquor, a
small piece of glaze, if at hand (this may be dispensed with), 1/4 teaspoonful
of salt, ditto of pepper, 1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence.
Mode.--Cut the capers across once or twice, but do not chop them fine; put them in a saucepan with 1/2 pint of good melted butter, and add all the other ingredients. Keep stirring the whole until it just simmers, when it is ready to serve.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 5d.
Sufficient to serve with a skate, or 2 or 3 slices of salmon.
CAPERS.--These are the unopened buds of a low trailing shrub, which grows wild among the crevices of the rocks of Greece, as well as in northern Africa: the plant, however, has come to be cultivated in the south of Europe. After being pickled in vinegar and salt, they are imported from Sicily, Italy, and the south of France. The best are from Toulon.
A SUBSTITUTE FOR CAPER SAUCE.
384. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter,
No. 376, 2 tablespoonfuls of cut parsley, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 1
tablespoonful of vinegar.
Mode.--Boil the parsley slowly to let it become a bad colour; cut, but do not chop it fine. Add it to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter, with salt and vinegar in the above proportions. Boil up and serve.
Time.--2 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 3d.
385. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, 1/4 oz. of pounded
mace, and 1/4 oz. of grated nutmeg, to each quart; brine.
Mode.--Gather the pods with the stalks on, before they turn red; slit them down the side with a small-pointed knife, and remove the seeds only; put them in a strong brine for 3 days, changing it every morning; then take them out, lay them on a cloth, with another one over them, until they are perfectly free from moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with mace and nutmeg in the above proportions; put the pods in a jar, pour over the vinegar when cold, and exclude them from the air by means of a wet bladder tied over.
CAYENNE VINEGAR, or ESSENCE OF CAYENNE.
386. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper,
1/2 pint of strong spirit, or 1 pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Put the vinegar, or spirit, into a bottle, with the above proportion of cayenne, and let it steep for a month, when strain off and bottle for use. This is excellent seasoning for soups or sauces, but must be used very sparingly.
CELERY SAUCE, FOR BOILED TURKEY, POULTRY, &c.
387. INGREDIENTS.--6 heads of celery, 1 pint
of white stock, No. 107, 2 blades of mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs;
thickening of butter and flour, or arrowroot, 1/2 pint of cream, lemon-juice.
Mode.--Boil the celery in salt and water, until tender, and cut it into pieces 2 inches long. Put the stock into a stewpan with the mace and herbs, and let it simmer for 1/2 hour to extract their flavour. Then strain the liquor, add the celery and a thickening of butter kneaded with flour, or, what is still better, with arrowroot; just before serving, put in the cream, boil it up and squeeze in a little lemon-juice. If necessary, add a seasoning of salt and white pepper.
Time.--25 minutes to boil the celery. Average cost, 1s. 3d.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a boiled turkey.
This sauce may be made brown by using gravy instead of white stock, and flavouring it with mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce.
ARROWROOT.--This nutritious fecula is obtained from the roots of a plant which is cultivated in both the East and West Indies. When the roots are about a year old, they are dug up, and, after being well washed, are beaten to a pulp, which is afterwards, by means of water, separated from the fibrous part. After being passed through a sieve, once more washed, and then suffered to settle, the sediment is dried in the sun, when it has become arrowroot. The best is obtained from the West Indies, but a large quantity of what is sold in London is adulterated with potato-starch. As a means of knowing arrowroot when it is good, it may be as well to state, that the genuine article, when formed into a jelly, will remain firm for three or four days, whilst the adulterated will become as thin as milk in the course of twelve hours.
CELERY SAUCE (a More Simple Recipe).
388. INGREDIENTS.--4 heads of celery, 1/2 pint
of melted butter, made with milk (No. 380), 1 blade of pounded mace; salt and
white pepper to taste.
Mode.--Wash the celery, boil it in salt and water till tender, and cut it into pieces 2 inches long; make 1/2 pint melted butter by recipe No. 380; put in the celery, pounded mace, and seasoning; simmer for three minutes, when the sauce will be ready to serve.
Time.--25 minutes to boil the celery. Average cost, 6d.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a boiled fowl.
389. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 oz. of celery-seed, 1
pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Crush the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar, and when cold, pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when strain and bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads.
CHESTNUT SAUCE FOR FOWLS OR TURKEY.
390. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2
pint of white stock, 2 strips of lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of cream
Mode.--Peel off the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into boiling water for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put them into a saucepan, with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them simmer for 1-1/2 hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the whole through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the cream; let it just simmer, but not boil, and keep stirring all the time. Serve very hot; and quickly. If milk is used instead of cream, a very small quantity of thickening may be required: that, of course, the cook will determine.
Time.--Altogether nearly two hours. Average cost, 8d.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a turkey.
BROWN CHESTNUT SAUCE.
391. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of chestnuts, 1/2
pint of stock No. 105, 2 lumps of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (See
Mode.--Prepare the chestnuts as in the foregoing recipe, by scalding and peeling them; put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and simmer them till tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above proportion, and rub the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather liquid, as it is liable to thicken.
Time.--1-1/2 hour to simmer the chestnuts. Average cost, 8d.
BENGAL RECIPE FOR MAKING MANGO CHETNEY.
392. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 lbs. of moist sugar,
3/4 lb. of salt, 1/4 lb. of garlic, 1/4 lb. of onions, 3/4 lb. of powdered
ginger, 1/4 lb. of dried chilies, 3/4 lb. of mustard-seed, 3/4 lb. of stoned
raisins, 2 bottles of best vinegar, 30 large unripe sour apples.
Mode.--The sugar must be made into syrup; the garlic, onions, and ginger be finely pounded in a mortar; the mustard-seed be washed in cold vinegar, and dried in the sun; the apples be peeled, cored, and sliced, and boiled in a bottle and a half of the vinegar. When all this is done, and the apples are quite cold, put them into a large pan, and gradually mix the whole of the rest of the ingredients, including the remaining half-bottle of vinegar. It must be well stirred until the whole is thoroughly blended, and then put into bottles for use. Tie a piece of wet bladder over the mouths of the bottles, after they are well corked. This chetney is very superior to any which can be bought, and one trial will prove it to be delicious.
Note.--This recipe was given by a native to an English lady, who had long been a resident in India, and who, since her return to her native country, has become quite celebrated amongst her friends for the excellence of this Eastern relish.
GARLIC.--The smell of this plant is generally considered offensive, and it is the most acrimonious in its taste of the whole of the alliaceous tribe. In 1548 it was introduced to England from the shores of the Mediterranean, where it is abundant, and in Sicily it grows naturally. It was in greater repute with our ancestors than it is with ourselves, although it is still used as a seasoning herb. On the continent, especially in Italy, it is much used, and the French consider it an essential in many made dishes.
393. INGREDIENTS.--50 fresh red English
chilies, 1 pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Pound or cut the chilies in half, and infuse them in the vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be found an agreeable relish to fish, as many people cannot eat it without the addition of an acid and cayenne pepper.
CHRISTOPHER NORTH'S SAUCE FOR MEAT OR GAME.
394. INGREDIENTS.-1 glass of port wine, 2
tablespoonfuls of Harvey's sauce, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, ditto
of pounded white sugar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1/4 teaspoonful of
cayenne pepper, ditto of salt.
Mode.--Mix all the ingredients thoroughly together, and heat the sauce gradually, by placing the vessel in which it is made in a saucepan of boiling water. Do not allow it to boil, and serve directly it is ready. This sauce, if bottled immediately, will keep good for a fortnight, and will be found excellent.
CONSOMME, or WHITE STOCK FOR MANY SAUCES.
395. Consommé is made precisely in the same manner as stock No. 107, and, for ordinary purposes, will be found quite good enough. When, however, a stronger stock is desired, either put in half the quantity of water, or double that of the meat. This is a very good foundation for all white sauces.
CRAB SAUCE FOR FISH (equal to Lobster Sauce).
396. INGREDIENTS.--1 crab; salt, pounded mace,
and cayenne to taste; 1/2 pint of melted butter made with milk (See No.
Mode.--Choose a nice fresh crab, pick all the meat away from the shell, and cut it into small square pieces. Make 1/2 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 380, put in the fish and seasoning; let it gradually warm through, and simmer for 2 minutes. It should not boil.
Average cost, 1s. 2d.
CREAM SAUCE FOR FISH OR WHITE DISHES.
397. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small
quantity of pounded mace or lemon-juice.
Mode.--Put the butter in a very clean saucepan, dredge in the flour, and keep shaking round till the butter is melted. Add the seasoning and cream, and stir the whole till it boils; let it just simmer for 5 minutes, when add either pounded mace or lemon-juice to taste, to give it a flavour.
Time.--5 minutes to simmer. Average cost for this quantity, 7d.
This sauce may be flavoured with very finely-shredded shalot.
398. INGREDIENTS.--3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of
butter, 6 tablespoonfuls of brown gravy.
Mode.--Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the seeds; cut them into small pieces; put them in a cloth, and rub them well, to take out the water which hangs about them. Put the butter in a saucepan, add the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until they are of a good colour. Then pour over it the gravy, mix this with the cucumbers, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready to serve.
Time.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.
399. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole pepper, 1
oz. of bruised ginger; sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers.
Mode.--Cut the cucumbers in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and let them remain for 24 hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours, put them into a jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a warm place. In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and ginger in the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them down with bladder, and in a few days they will be fit for use.
LONG PEPPER.--This is the produce of a different plant from that which produces the black, it consisting of the half-ripe flower-heads of what naturalists call Piper longum and chaba. It is the growth, however, of the same countries; indeed, all the spices are the produce of tropical climates only. Originally, the most valuable of these were found in the Spice Islands, or Moluccas, of the Indian Ocean, and were highly prized by the nations of antiquity. The Romans indulged in them to a most extravagant degree. The long pepper is less aromatic than the black, but its oil is more pungent.
CUCUMBER SAUCE, WHITE.
400. INGREDIENTS.--3 or four cucumbers, 1/2
pint of white stock, No. 107, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 3 eggs.
Mode.--Cut the cucumbers into small pieces, after peeling them and taking out the seeds. Put them in a stewpan with the white stock and seasoning; simmer gently till the cucumbers are tender, which will be in about 1/4 hour. Then add the yolks of the eggs well beaten; stir them to the sauce, but do not allow it to boil, and serve very hot.
Time.--Altogether, 1/2 hour.
CUCUMBER VINEGAR (a very nice Addition to Salads).
401. INGREDIENTS.--10 large cucumbers, or 12
smaller ones, 1 quart of vinegar, 2 onions, 2 shalots, 1 tablespoonful of salt,
2 tablespoonfuls of pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne.
Mode.--Pare and slice the cucumbers, put them in a stone jar or wide-mouthed bottle, with the vinegar; slice the onions and shalots, and add them, with all the other ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand 4 or 5 days, boil it all up, and when cold, strain the liquor through a piece of muslin, and store it away in small bottles well sealed. This vinegar is a very nice addition to gravies, hashes, &e., as well as a great improvement to salads, or to eat with cold meat.
GERMAN METHOD OF KEEPING CUCUMBERS FOR WINTER USE.
402. INGREDIENTS.--Cucumbers, salt.
Mode.--Pare and slice the cucumbers (as for the table), sprinkle well with salt, and let them remain for 24 hours; strain off the liquor, pack in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers and salt alternately; tie down closely, and, when wanted for use, take out the quantity required. Now wash them well in fresh water, and dress as usual with pepper, vinegar, and oil.
THE CUCUMBER.--Though the melon is far superior in point of flavour to this fruit, yet it is allied to the cucumber, which is known to naturalists as Cucumia sativus. The modern Egyptians, as did their forefathers, still eat it, and others of its class. Cucumbers were observed, too, by Bishop Heber, beyond the Ganges, in India; and Burckhardt noticed them in Palestine. (See No. 127.)
AN EXCELLENT WAY OF PRESERVING CUCUMBERS.
403. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water; 1 lb. of
lump sugar, the rind of 1 lemon, 1 oz. of ginger, cucumbers.
Mode.--Choose the greenest cucumbers, and those that are most free from seeds; put them in strong salt and water, with a cabbage-leaf to keep them down; tie a paper over them, and put them in a warm place till they are yellow; then wash them and set them over the fire in fresh water, with a very little salt, and another cabbage-leaf over them; cover very closely, but take care they do not boil. If they are not a fine green, change the water again, cover them as before, and make them hot. When they are a good colour, take them off the fire and let them cool; cut them in quarters, take out the seeds and pulp, and put them into cold water. Let them remain for 2 days, changing the water twice each day, to draw out the salt. Put the sugar, with 1/4 pint of water, in a saucepan over the fire; remove the scum as it rises, and add the lemon-peel and ginger with the outside scraped off; when the syrup is tolerably thick, take it off the fire, and when cold, wipe the cucumbers dry, and put them in. Boil the syrup once in 2 or 3 days for 3 weeks; strengthen it if required, and let it be quite cold before the cucumbers are put in. Great attention must be paid to the directions in the commencement of this recipe, as, if these are not properly carried out, the result will be far from satisfactory.
Seasonable.--This recipe should be used in June, July, or August.
COMMON SALT.--By this we mean salt used for cooking purposes, which is found in great abundance both on land and in the waters of the ocean. Sea or salt water, as it is often called, contains, it has been discovered, about three per cent, of salt on an average. Solid rocks of salt are also found in various parts of the world, and the county of Chester contains many of these mines, and it is from there that much of our salt comes. Some springs are so highly impregnated with salt, as to have received the name of "brine" springs, and are supposed to have become so by passing through the salt rocks below ground, and thus dissolving a portion of this mineral substance. We here give an engraving of a salt-mine at Northwich, Cheshire, where both salt-mines and brine-springs are exceedingly productive, and are believed to have been wrought so far back as during the occupation of Britain by the Romans.
CUSTARD SAUCE FOR SWEET PUDDINGS OR TARTS.
404. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3
oz. of pounded sugar, 1 tablespoonful of brandy.
Mode.--Put the milk in a very clean saucepan, and let it boil. Beat the eggs, stir to them the milk and pounded sugar, and put the mixture into a jug. Place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring well until it thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. Serve the sauce in a tureen, stir in the brandy, and grate a little nutmeg over the top. This sauce may be made very much nicer by using cream instead of milk; but the above recipe will be found quite good enough for ordinary purposes.
Average cost, 6d. per pint.
Sufficient, this quantity, for 2 fruit tarts, or 1 pudding.
DUTCH SAUCE FOR FISH.
405. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 teaspoonful of flour, 2
oz. of butter, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of
1/2 lemon; salt to taste.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients, except the lemon-juice, into a stew-pan; set it over the fire, and keep continually stirring. When it is sufficiently thick, take it off, as it should not boil. If, however, it happens to curdle, strain the sauce through a tammy, add the lemon-juice, and serve. Tarragon vinegar may be used instead of plain, and, by many, is considered far preferable.
Average cost, 6d.
Note.--This sauce may be poured hot over salad, and left to get quite cold, when it should be thick, smooth, and somewhat stiff. Excellent salads may be made of hard eggs, or the remains of salt fish flaked nicely from the bone, by pouring over a little of the above mixture when hot, and allowing it to cool.
THE LEMON.--This fruit is a native of Asia, and is mentioned by Virgil as an antidote to poison. It is hardier than the orange, and, as one of the citron tribe, was brought into Europe by the Arabians. The lemon was first cultivated in England in the beginning of the 17th century, and is now often to be found in our green-houses. The kind commonly sold, however, is imported from Portugal, Spain, and the Azores. Some also come from St. Helena; but those from Spain are esteemed the best. Its juice is now an essential for culinary purposes; but as an antiscorbutic its value is still greater. This juice, which is called citric acid, may be preserved in bottles for a considerable time, by covering it with a thin stratum of oil. Shrub is made from it with rum and sugar.
GREEN DUTCH SAUCE, or HOLLANDAISE VERTE.
406. INGREDIENTS.--6 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel,
No. 367, seasoning to taste of salt and cayenne, a little parsley-green to
colour, the juice of 1/2 a lemon.
Mode.--Put the Béchamel into a saucepan with the seasoning, and bring it to a boil. Make a green colouring by pounding some parsley in a mortar, and squeezing all the juice from it. Let this just simmer, when add it to the sauce. A moment before serving, put in the lemon-juice, but not before; for otherwise the sauce would turn yellow, and its appearance be thus spoiled.
Average cost, 4d.
BÉCHAMEL SAUCE--This sauce takes its name from a Monsieur Béchamel, a rich French financier, who, according to Borne authorities, invented it; whilst others affirm he only patronized it. Be this as it may, it is one of the most pleasant sauces which come to table, and should be most carefully and intelligently prepared. It is frequently used, as in the above recipe, as a principal ingredient and basis for other sauces.
TO PICKLE EGGS.
407. INGREDIENTS.--16 eggs, 1 quart of
vinegar, 1/2 oz. of Black pepper, 1/2 oz. of Jamaica pepper, 1/2 oz. of ginger.
Mode.--Boil the eggs for 12 minutes, then dip them into cold water, and take off the shells. Put the vinegar, with the pepper and ginger, into a stewpan, and let it simmer for 10 minutes. Now place the eggs in a jar, pour over them the vinegar, &c., boiling hot, and, when cold, tie them down with bladder to exclude the air. This pickle will be ready for use in a month.
Average cost, for this quantity, 1s. 9d.
Seasonable.--This should be made about Easter, as at this time eggs are plentiful and cheap. A store of pickled eggs will be found very useful and ornamental in serving with many first and second course dishes.
The ginger-plant, known to naturalists as Zingiber officinale, is a native, of the East and West Indies. It grows somewhat like the lily of the valley, but its height is about three feet. In Jamaica it flowers about August or September, fading about the end of the year. The fleshy creeping roots, which form the ginger of commerce, are in a proper state to be dug when the stalks are entirely withered. This operation is usually performed in January and February; and when the roots are taken out of the earth, each one is picked, scraped, separately washed, and afterwards very carefully dried. Ginger is generally considered as less pungent and heating to the system than might he expected from its effects on the organs of taste, and it is frequently used, with considerable effect, as an anti-spasmodic and carminative.
EGG BALLS FOR SOUPS AND MADE DISHES.
408. INGREDIENTS.--8 eggs, a little flour;
seasoning to taste of salt.
Mode.--Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, strip off the shells, take the yolks and pound them in a mortar. Beat the yolks of the other 2 eggs; add them, with a little flour and salt, to those pounded; mix all well together, and roll into balls. Boil them before they are put into the soup or other dish they may be intended for.
Time.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. Average cost, for this quantity, 8d.
Sufficient, 2 dozen balls for 1 tureen of soup.
EGG SAUCE FOR SALT FISH.
409. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 pint of melted
butter, No. 376; when liked, a very little lemon-juice.
Mode.--Boil the eggs until quite hard, which will be in about 20 minutes, and put them into cold water for 1/2 hour. Strip off the shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however, too fine. Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376, and, when boiling, stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at pleasure.
Time.--20 minutes to boil the eggs. Average cost, 8d.
Sufficient.--This quantity for 3 or 4 lbs. of fish.
Note.--When a thicker sauce is required, use one or two more eggs to the same quantity of melted butter.
EPICUREAN SAUCE FOR STEAKS, CHOPS, GRAVIES, OR FISH.
410. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of walnut ketchup,
1/4 pint of mushroom ditto, 2 tablespoonfuls of Indian soy, 2 tablespoonfuls of
port wine; 1/4 oz. of white pepper, 2 oz. of shalots, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/4
oz. of cloves, 3/4 pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Put the whole of the ingredients into a bottle, and let it remain for a fortnight in a warm place, occasionally shaking up the contents. Strain, and bottle off for use. This sauce will be found an agreeable addition to gravies, hashes, stews, &c.
Average cost, for this quantity, 1s. 6d.
SHALOT, OR ESCHALOT.--This plant is supposed to have been introduced to England by the Crusaders, who found it growing wild in the vicinity of Ascalon. It is a bulbous root, and when full grown, its leaves wither in July. They ought to be taken up in the autumn, and when dried in the house, will keep till spring. It is called by old authors the "barren onion," and is used in sauces and pickles, soups and made dishes, and as an accompaniment to chops and steaks.
ESPAGNOLE, OR BROWN SPANISH SAUCE.
411. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of lean ham, 1 lb.
of veal, 1-1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107; 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, 1/2 a
bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of savoury herbs, 6 green onions, 3 shalots, 2 cloves, 1
blade of mace, 2 glasses of sherry or Madeira, thickening of butter and flour.
Mode.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, and put them into a stewpan. Moisten these with 1/2 pint of the stock No. 107, and simmer till the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a nicely-coloured glaze, when put in a few more spoonfuls to detach it. Add the remainder of the stock, with the spices, herbs, shalots, and onions, and simmer very gently for 1 hour. Strain and skim off every particle of fat, and when required for use, thicken with butter and flour, or with a little roux. Add the wine, and, if necessary, a seasoning of cayenne; when it will be ready to serve.
Average cost, 2s. per pint.
Note.--The wine in this sauce may be omitted, and an onion sliced and fried of a nice brown substituted for it. This sauce or gravy is used for many dishes, and with most people is a general favourite.
FENNEL SAUCE FOR MACKEREL.
412. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter,
No. 376, rather more than 1 tablespoonful of chopped fennel.
Mode.--Make the melted butter very smoothly, by recipe No. 376; chop the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any grit or dirt, and put it to the butter when this is on the point of boiling. Simmer for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen.
Average cost, 4d.
Sufficient to serve with 5 or 6 mackerel.
FENNEL.--This elegantly-growing plant, of which the Latin name is Anethum foeniculum, grows best in chalky soils, where, indeed, it is often found wild. It is very generally cultivated in gardens, and has much improved on its original form. Various dishes are frequently ornamented and garnished with its graceful leaves, and these are sometimes boiled in soups, although it is more usually confined, in English cookery, to the mackerel sauce as here given.
413. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 oz. of cayenne, 2
tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, a few shreds of
garlic and shalot, 1 quart of vinegar.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake well every day for a fortnight. Keep it in small bottles well sealed, and in a few days it will be fit for use.
Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.
FORCEMEAT BALLS FOR FISH SOUPS.
414. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized lobster,
1/2 an anchovy, 1 head of boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt,
cayenne, and mace to taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2
Mode.--Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound it, with the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of the hard-boiled egg, seasoning, and bread crumbs. Continue pounding till the whole is nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a liquid state; well whisk the eggs, and work these up with the pounded lobster-meat. Make into balls of about an inch in diameter, and fry of a nice pale brown.
Sufficient, from 18 to 20 balls for 1 tureen of soup.
FORCEMEAT FOR COLD SAVOURY PIES.
415. INGREDIENTS.--1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat
bacon; salt, cayenne, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg,
the same of chopped lemon-peel, 1/2 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, 1/2
teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs.
Mode.--Chop the veal and bacon together, and put them in a mortar with the other ingredients mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2 eggs which have been previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well together, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. If the pie is not to be eaten immediately, omit the herbs and parsley, as these would prevent it from keeping. Mushrooms or truffles may be added.
Sufficient for 2 small pies.
MARJORAM.--Although there are several species of marjoram, that which is known as the sweet or knotted marjoram, is the one usually preferred in cookery. It is a native of Portugal, and when its leaves are used as a seasoning herb, they have an agreeable aromatic flavour. The winter sweet marjoram used for the same purposes, is a native of Greece, and the pot-marjoram is another variety brought from Sicily. All of them are favourite ingredients in soups, stuffings, &c.
FORCEMEAT FOR PIKE, CARP, HADDOCK, AND VARIOUS KINDS OF FISH.
416. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of fresh butter, 1
oz. of suet, 1 oz. of fat bacon, 1 small teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs,
including parsley; a little onion, when liked, shredded very fine; salt, nutmeg,
and cayenne to taste; 4 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 egg.
Mode.--Mix all the ingredients well together, carefully mincing them very finely; beat up the egg, moisten with it, and work the whole very smoothly together. Oysters or anchovies may be added to this forcemeat, and will be found a great improvement.
Average cost, 6d.
Sufficient for a moderate-sized haddock or pike.
FORCEMEAT FOR VEAL, TURKEYS, FOWLS, HARE, &c.
417. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of ham or lean bacon,
1/4 lb. of suet, the rind of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1
teaspoonful of minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6
oz. of bread crumbs, 2 eggs.
Mode.--Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet, lemon-peel, and herbs, taking particular care that all be very finely minced; add a seasoning to taste, of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend all thoroughly together with the bread crumbs, before wetting. Now beat and strain the eggs, work these up with the other ingredients, and the forcemeat will be ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry of a nice brown, in boiling lard, or put them on a tin and bake for 1/2 hour in a moderate oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour should predominate greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient body to cut with a knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate forcemeat, it is advisable to pound the ingredients together before binding with the egg; but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely answers the purpose.
Average cost, 8d.
Sufficient for a turkey, a moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.
Note.--In forcemeat for HARE, the liver of the animal is sometimes added. Boil for 5 minutes, mince it very small, and mix it with the other ingredients. If it should be in an unsound state, it must be on no account made use of.
SWEET HERBS.--Those most usually employed for purposes of cooking, such as the flavouring of soups, sauces, forcemeats, &c., are thyme, sage, mint, marjoram, savory, and basil. Other sweet herbs are cultivated for purposes of medicine and perfumery: they are most grateful both to the organs of taste and smelling; and to the aroma derived from them is due, in a great measure, the sweet and exhilarating fragrance of our "flowery meads." In town, sweet herbs have to be procured at the greengrocers' or herbalists', whilst, in the country, the garden should furnish all that are wanted, the cook taking great care to have some dried in the autumn for her use throughout the winter months.
FORCEMEAT FOR BAKED PIKE.
418. INGREDIENTS.--3 oz. of bread crumbs, 1
teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be
dispensed with), 2 oz. of suet; salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; 6
tablespoonfuls of cream or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs.
Mode.--Beard and mince the oysters, prepare and mix the other ingredients by recipe No. 416, and blend the whole thoroughly together. Moisten with the cream and eggs, put all into a stewpan, and stir it over the fire till it thickens, when put it into the fish, which should have previously been cut open, and sew it up.
Time.--4 or 6 minutes to thicken.
Average cost, 10d.
Sufficient for a moderate-sized pike.
419. It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that French forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three separate processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend using.
420. INGREDIENTS.--The crumb of 2 penny rolls,
4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, No. 107, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1
bay-leaf, a little minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few
mushrooms (when obtainable), butter, the yolks of 2 eggs.
Mode.--Soak the crumb of the rolls in milk for about 1/2 hour, then take it out, and squeeze so as to press the milk from it; put the soaked bread into a stewpan with the above quantity of white stock, and set it on one side; then put into a separate stewpan 1 oz. of butter, a slice of lean ham cut small, with a bay-leaf, herbs, mushrooms, spices, &c., in the above proportions, and fry them gently over a slow fire. When done, moisten with 2 teacupfuls of white stock, boil for 20 minutes, and strain the whole through a sieve over the panada in the other stewpan. Place it over the fire, keep constantly stirring, to prevent its burning, and when quite dry, put in a small piece of butter. Let this again dry up by stirring over the fire; then add the yolks of 2 eggs, mix well, put the panada to cool on a clean plate, and use it when required. Panada should always be well flavoured, as the forcemeat receives no taste from any of the other ingredients used in its preparation.
BOILED CALF'S UDDER FOR FRENCH FORCEMEATS.
421. Put the udder into a stewpan with
sufficient water to cover it; let it stew gently till quite done, when take it
out to cool. Trim all the upper parts, cut it into small pieces, and pound well
in a mortar, till it can be rubbed through a sieve. That portion which passes
through the strainer is one of the three ingredients of which French forcemeats
are generally composed; but many cooks substitute butter for this, being a less
troublesome and more expeditious mode of preparation.
PESTLE AND MORTAR.--No cookery can be perfectly performed without the aid of the useful instruments shown in the engraving. For pounding things sufficiently fine, they are invaluable, and the use of them will save a good deal of time, besides increasing the excellence of the preparations. They are made of iron, and, in that material, can be bought cheap; but as these are not available, for all purposes, we should recommend, as more economical in the end, those made of Wedgwood, although these are considerably more expensive than the former.
422. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of veal,
panada (No. 420), and calf's udder (No. 421), 2 eggs; seasoning to taste of
pepper, salt, and pounded mace, or grated nutmeg; a little flour.
Mode.--Take the fleshy part of veal, scrape it with a knife, till all the meat is separated from the sinews, and allow about 1/2 lb. for an entrée. Chop the meat, and pound it in a mortar till reduced to a paste; then roll it into a ball; make another of panada (No. 420), the same size, and another of udder (No. 421), taking care that these three balls be of the same size. It is to be remembered, that equality of size, and not of weight, is here necessary. When the three ingredients are properly prepared, pound them altogether in a mortar for some time; for the more quenelles are pounded, the more delicate they are. Now moisten with the eggs, whites and yolks, and continue pounding, adding a seasoning of pepper, spices, &c. When the whole is well blended together, mould it into balls, or whatever shape is intended, roll them in flour, and poach in boiling water, to which a little salt should have been added. If the quenelles are not firm enough, add the yolk of another egg, but omit the white, which only makes them hollow and puffy inside. In the preparation of this recipe, it would be well to bear in mind that the ingredients are to be well pounded and seasoned, and must be made hard or soft according to the dishes they are intended for. For brown or white ragoûts they should be firm, and when the quenelles are used very small, extreme delicacy will be necessary in their preparation. Their flavour may be varied by using the flesh of rabbit, fowl, hare, pheasant, grouse, or an extra quantity of mushroom, parsley, &c.
Time,--About 1/4 hour to poach in boiling water.
Sufficient, 1/2 lb. of veal or other meat, with other ingredients in proportion, for 1 entrée.
Note.--The French are noted for their skill in making forcemeats; one of the principal causes of their superiority in this respect being, that they pound all the ingredients so diligently and thoroughly. Any one with the slightest pretensions to refined cookery, must, in this particular, implicitly follow the example of our friends across the Channel.
FORCEMEAT, or QUENELLES, FOR TURTLE SOUP.
(See No. 189.)
423. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR FORCEMEATS.--Take a pound and a half of lean veal from the fillet, and cut it in long thin slices; scrape with a knife till nothing but the fibre remains; put it in a mortar, pound it 10 minutes, or until in a purée; pass it through a wire sieve (use the remainder in stock); then take 1 pound of good fresh beef suet, which skin, shred, and chop very fine; put it in a mortar and pound it; then add 6 oz. of panada (that is, bread soaked in milk and boiled till nearly dry) with the suet; pound them well together, and add the veal; season with a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter one of pepper, half that of nutmeg; work all well together; then add four eggs by degrees, continually pounding the contents of the mortar. When well mixed, take a small piece in a spoon, and poach it in some boiling water; and if it is delicate, firm, and of a good flavour, it is ready for use.
FRIED BREAD CRUMBS.
424. Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven overnight, and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine crumbs. Put some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring it to the boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly. Directly they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them before the fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are ready for use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs should not have the slightest appearance or taste of having been, in the least degree, burnt.
FRIED SIPPETS OF BREAD (for Garnishing many Dishes).
425. Cut the bread into thin slices, and stamp them out in whatever shape you like,--rings, crosses, diamonds, &c. &c. Fry them in the same manner as the bread crumbs, in clear boiling lard, or clarified dripping, and drain them until thoroughly crisp before the fire. When variety is desired, fry some of a pale colour, and others of a darker hue.
FRIED BREAD FOR BORDERS.
426. Proceed as above, by frying some slices of bread cut in any fanciful shape. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed, arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately.
GENEVESE SAUCE FOR SALMON, TROUT, &c.
427. INGREDIENTS.--1 small carrot, a small
faggot of sweet herbs, including parsley, 1 onion, 5 or 6 mushrooms (when
obtainable), 1 bay-leaf, 6 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 oz. of butter, 1 glass of
sherry, 1-1/2 pint of white stock, No. 107, thickening of butter and flour, the
juice of half a lemon.
Mode.--Cut up the onion and carrot into small rings, and put them into a stewpan with the herbs, mushrooms, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace; add the butter, and simmer the whole very gently over a slow fire until the onion is quite tender. Pour in the stock and sherry, and stew slowly for 1 hour, when strain it off into a clean saucepan. Now make a thickening of butter and flour, put it to the sauce, stir it over the fire until perfectly smooth and mellow, add the lemon-juice, give one boil, when it will be ready for table.
Time.--Altogether 2 hours.
Average cost, 1s. 3d per pint.
Sufficient, half this quantity for two slices of salmon.
SAGE.--This was originally a native of the south of Europe, but it has long been cultivated in the English garden. There are several kinds of it, known as the green, the red, the small-leaved, and the broad-leaved balsamic. In cookery, its principal use is for stuffings and sauces, for which purpose the red is the most agreeable, and the green the next. The others are used for medical purposes.
428. INGREDIENTS.--Salt and water, 1 oz. of
bruised ginger, 1/2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1/4 oz. of whole allspice, 4
cloves, 2 blades of mace, a little horseradish. This proportion of pepper,
spices, &c., for 1 quart of vinegar.
Mode.--Let the gherkins remain in salt and water for 3 or 4 days, when take them out, wipe perfectly dry, and put them into a stone jar. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with spices and pepper, &c., in the above proportion, for 10 minutes; pour it, quite boiling, over the gherkins, cover the jar with vine-leaves, and put over them a plate, setting them near the fire, where they must remain all night. Next day drain off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour it hot over them. Cover up with fresh leaves, and let the whole remain till quite cold. Now tie down closely with bladder to exclude the air, and in a month or two, they will be fit for use.
Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.
GHERKINS.--Gherkins are young cucumbers; and the only way in which they are used for cooking purposes is pickling them, as by the recipe here given. Not having arrived at maturity, they have not, of course, so strongly a developed flavour as cucumbers, and, as a pickle, they are very general favourites.
GOOSEBERRY SAUCE FOR BOILED MACKEREL.
429. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of green
gooseberries, 3 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, No. 367 (veal gravy may be
substituted for this), 2 oz. of fresh butter; seasoning to taste of salt,
pepper, and grated nutmeg.
Mode.--Boil the gooseberries in water until quite tender; strain them, and rub them through a sieve. Put into a saucepan the Béchamel or gravy, with the butter and seasoning; add the pulp from the gooseberries, mix all well together, and heat gradually through. A little pounded sugar added to this sauce is by many persons considered an improvement, as the saccharine matter takes off the extreme acidity of the unripe fruit.
Time.--Boil the gooseberries from 20 minutes to 1/2 hour.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a large dish of mackerel.
Seasonable from May to July.
THE GOOSEBERRY.--This useful and wholesome fruit (Ribes grossularia) is thought to be indigenous to the British Isles, and may be occasionally found in a wild state in some of the eastern counties, although, when uncultivated, it is but a very small and inferior berry. The high state of perfection to which it has been here brought, is due to the skill of the English gardeners; for in no other country does it attain the same size and flavour. The humidity of the British climate, however, has doubtless something to do with the result; and it is said that gooseberries produced in Scotland as far north as Inverness, are of a very superior character. Malic and citric acid blended with sugar, produce the pleasant flavour of the gooseberry; and upon the proper development of these properties depends the success of all cooking operations with which they are connected.
GLAZE FOR COVERING COLD HAMS, TONGUES, &c.
430. INGREDIENTS.--Stock No. 104 or 107,
doubling the quantity of meat in each.
Mode.--We may remark at the outset, that unless glaze is wanted in very large quantities, it is seldom made expressly. Either of the stocks mentioned above, boiled down and reduced very considerably, will be found to produce a very good glaze. Put the stock into a stewpan, over a nice clear fire; let it boil till it becomes somewhat stiff, when keep stirring, to prevent its burning. The moment it is sufficiently reduced, and comes to a glaze, turn it out into the glaze-pot, of which we have here given an engraving. As, however, this is not to be found in every establishment, a white earthenware jar would answer the purpose; and this may be placed in a vessel of boiling water, to melt the glaze when required. It should never be warmed in a saucepan, except on the principle of the bain marie, lest it should reduce too much, and become black and bitter. If the glaze is wanted of a pale colour, more veal than beef should be used in making the stock; and it is as well to omit turnips and celery, as these impart a disagreeable bitter flavour.
TO GLAZE COLD JOINTS, &c.--Melt the glaze by placing the vessel which contains it, into the bain marie or saucepan of boiling water; brush it over the meat with a paste-brush, and if in places it is not quite covered, repeat the operation. The glaze should not be too dark a colour. (See Coloured Cut of Glazed Ham, P.)
GLAZE-KETTLE.--This is a kettle used for keeping the strong stock boiled down to a jelly, which is known by the name of glaze. It is composed of two tin vessels, as shown in the cut, one of which, the upper,--containing the glaze, is inserted into one of larger diameter and containing boiling water. A brush is put in the small hole at the top of the lid, and is employed for putting the glaze on anything that may require it.
THE BAIN MARIE.--So long ago as the time when emperors ruled in Rome, and the yellow Tiber passed through a populous and wealthy city, this utensil was extensively employed; and it is frequently mentioned by that profound culinary chemist of the ancients, Apicius. It is an open kind of vessel (as shown in the engraving and explained in our paragraph No. 87, on the French terms used in modern cookery), filled with boiling or nearly boiling water; and into this water should be put all the stewpans containing those ingredients which it is desired to keep hot. The quantity and quality of the contents of these vessels are not at all affected; and if the hour of dinner is uncertain in any establishment, by reason of the nature of the master's business, nothing is so certain a means of preserving the flavour of all dishes as the employment of the bain marie.
GREEN SAUCE FOR GREEN GEESE OR DUCKLINGS.
431. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 pint of sorrel-juice, 1
glass of sherry, 1/2 pint of green gooseberries, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar,
1 oz. of fresh butter.
Mode.--Boil the gooseberries in water until they are quite tender; mash them and press them through a sieve; put the pulp into a saucepan with the above ingredients; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes, and serve very hot.
Time.--3 or 4 minutes.
Note.--We have given this recipe as a sauce for green geese, thinking that some of our readers might sometimes require it; but, at the generality of fashionable tables, it is now seldom or never served.
SORREL.--We gather from the pages of Pliny and Apicius, that sorrel was cultivated by the Romans in order to give it more strength and flavour, and that they also partook of it sometimes stewed with mustard, being seasoned with a little oil and vinegar. At the present day, English cookery is not much indebted to this plant (Rumex Acetosa), although the French make use of it to a considerable extent. It is found in most parts of Great Britain, and also on the continent, growing wild in the grass meadows, and, in a few gardens, it is cultivated. The acid of sorrel is very prononcé, and is what chemists term a binoxalate of potash; that is, a combination of oxalic acid with potash.
GENERAL STOCK FOR GRAVIES.
432. Either of the stocks, Nos. 104, 105, or
107, will be found to answer very well for the basis of many gravies, unless
these are wanted very rich indeed. By the addition of various store sauces,
thickening and flavouring, the stocks here referred to may be converted into
very good gravies. It should be borne in mind, however, that the goodness and
strength of spices, wines, flavourings, &c., evaporate, and that they lose a
great deal of their fragrance, if added to the gravy a long time before they are
wanted. If this point is attended to, a saving of one half the quantity of these
ingredients will be effected, as, with long boiling, the flavour almost entirely
passes away. The shank-bones of mutton, previously well soaked, will be found a
great assistance in enriching gravies; a kidney or melt, beef skirt, trimmings
of meat, &c. &c., answer very well when only a small quantity is wanted,
and, as we have before observed, a good gravy need not necessarily be so very
expensive; for economically-prepared dishes are oftentimes found as savoury and
wholesome as dearer ones. The cook should also remember that the fragrance of
gravies should not be overpowered by too much spice, or any strong essences, and
that they should always be warmed in a bain marie, after they are
flavoured, or else in a jar or jug placed in a saucepan full of boiling water.
The remains of roast-meat gravy should always be saved; as, when no meat is at
hand, a very nice gravy in haste may be made from it, and when added to hashes,
ragoûts, &c., is a great improvement.
GRAVY-KETTLE.--This is a utensil which will not be found in every kitchen; but it is a useful one where it is necessary to keep gravies hot for the purpose of pouring over various dishes as they are cooking. It is made of copper, and should, consequently, be heated over the hot plate, if there be one, or a charcoal stove. The price at which it can be purchased is set down by Messrs. Slack at 14s.
GRAVY FOR ROAST MEAT.
433. INGREDIENTS.--Gravy, salt.
Mode.--Put a common dish with a small quantity of salt in it under the meat, about a quarter of an hour before it is removed from the fire. When the dish is full, take it away, baste the meat, and pour the gravy into the dish on which the joint is to be served.
SAUCES AND GRAVIES IN THE MIDDLE AGES.--Neither poultry, butcher's meat, nor roast game were eaten dry in the middle ages, any more than fried fish is now. Different sauces, each having its own peculiar flavour, were served with all these dishes, and even with the various parts of each animal. Strange and grotesque sauces, as, for example, "eggs cooked on the spit," "butter fried and roasted," were invented by the cooks of those days; but these preparations had hardly any other merit than that of being surprising and difficult to
A QUICKLY-MADE GRAVY.
434. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of shin of beef,
1/2 onion, 1/4 carrot, 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley and savoury herbs, a piece of
butter about the size of a walnut; cayenne and mace to taste, 3/4 pint of water.
Mode.--Cut up the meat into very small pieces, slice the onion and carrot, and put them into a small saucepan with the butter. Keep stirring over a sharp fire until they have taken a little colour, when add the water and the remaining ingredients. Simmer for 1/2 hour, skim well, strain, and flavour, when it will be ready for use.
Time.--1/2 hour. Average cost, for this quantity, 5d.
A HUNDRED DIFFERENT DISHES.--Modern housewives know pretty well how much care, and attention, and foresight are necessary in order to serve well a little dinner for six or eight persons,--a dinner which will give credit to the ménage, and satisfaction and pleasure to the guests. A quickly-made gravy, under some circumstances that we have known occur, will be useful to many housekeepers when they have not much time for preparation. But, talking of speed, and time, and preparation, what a combination of all these must have been necessary for the feast at the wedding of Charles VI. of France. On that occasion, as Froissart the chronicler tells us, the art of cooking, with its innumerable paraphernalia of sauces, with gravy, pepper, cinnamon, garlic, scallion, brains, gravy soups, milk potage, and ragoûts, had a signal triumph. The skilful chef-de-cuisine of the royal household covered the great marble table of the regal palace with no less than a hundred different dishes, prepared in a hundred different ways.
A GOOD BEEF GRAVY FOR POULTRY, GAME, &c.
435. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 lb. of lean beef, 1/2
pint of cold water, 1 shalot or small onion, 1/2 a teaspoonful of salt, a little
pepper, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey's sauce or mushroom ketchup, 1/2 a teaspoonful
Mode.--Cut up the beef into small pieces, and put it, with the water, into a stewpan. Add the shalot and seasoning, and simmer gently for 3 hours, taking care that it does not boil fast. A short time before it is required, take the arrowroot, and having mixed it with a little cold water, pour it into the gravy, which keep stirring, adding the Harvey's sauce, and just letting it boil. Strain off the gravy in a tureen, and serve very hot.
Time.--3 hours. Average cost, 8d. per pint.
436. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 large
onions, 2 lbs. of shin of beef, 2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt
and whole pepper to taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of
butter, 3 oz. of flour.
Mode.--Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the fire, throw in the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown; then add the beef and bacon, which should be cut into small square pieces; season, and pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for about ten minutes, or until it is of a nice brown colour, occasionally stirring the contents. Now fill up with water in the above proportion; let it boil up, when draw it to the side of the fire to simmer very gently for 1-1/2 hour; strain, and when cold, take off all the fat. In thickening this gravy, melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, add 2 oz. of flour, and stir till of a light-brown colour; when cold, add it to the strained gravy, and boil it up quickly. This thickening may be made in larger quantities, and kept in a stone jar for use when wanted.
Time.--Altogether, 2 hours. Average cost, 4d. per pint.
CLOVES.--This very agreeable spice is the unexpanded flower-buds of the Caryophyllus aromaticus, a handsome, branching tree, a native of the Malacca Islands. They take their name from the Latin word clavus, or the French clou, both meaning a nail, and to which the clove has a considerable resemblance. Cloves were but little known to the ancients, and Pliny appears to be the only writer who mentions them; and he says, vaguely enough, that some were brought to Rome, very similar to grains of pepper, but somewhat longer; that they were only to be found in India, in a wood consecrated to the gods; and that they served in the manufacture of perfumes. The Dutch, as in the case of the nutmeg (See 378), endeavoured, when they gained possession of the Spice Islands, to secure a monopoly of cloves, and, so that the cultivation of the tree might be confined to Amboyna, their chief island, bribed the surrounding chiefs to cut down all trees found elsewhere. The Amboyna, or royal clove, is said to be the best, and is rare; but other kinds, nearly equally good, are produced in other parts of the world, and they come to Europe from Mauritius, Bourbon, Cayenne, and Martinique, as also from St. Kitts, St. Vincent's, and Trinidad. The clove contains about 20 per cent. of volatile aromatic oil, to which it owes its peculiar pungent flavour, its other parts being composed of woody fibre, water, gum, and resin.
BROWN GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT.
437. INGREDIENTS.--2 large onions, 1 large
carrot, 2 oz. of butter, 3 pints of boiling water, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, a
wineglassful of good beer; salt and pepper to taste.
Mode.--Slice, flour, and fry the onions and carrots in the butter until of a nice light-brown colour; then add the boiling water and the remaining ingredients; let the whole stew gently for about an hour; then strain, and when cold, skim off all the fat. Thicken it in the same manner as recipe No. 436, and, if thought necessary, add a few drops of colouring No. 108.
Time.--1 hour. Average cost, 2d. per pint.
Note.--The addition of a small quantity of mushroom ketchup or Harvey's sauce very much improves the flavour of this gravy.
RICH GRAVY FOR HASHES, RAGOUTS, &c.
438. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1
large onion or a few shalots, a little flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades
of mace, 2 or 3 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1
slice of lean ham or bacon, 1/2 a head of celery (when at hand), 2 pints of
boiling water; salt and cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Cut the beef into thin slices, as also the onions, dredge them with flour, and fry of a pale brown, but do not allow them to get black; pour in the boiling water, let it boil up; and skim. Add the remaining ingredients, and simmer the whole very gently for 2 hours, or until all the juices are extracted from the meat; put it by to get cold, when take off all the fat. This gravy may be flavoured with ketchup, store sauces, wine, or, in fact, anything that may give additional and suitable relish to the dish it is intended for.
Time.--Rather more than 2 hours.
Average cost, 8d. per pint.
ALLSPICE.--This is the popular name given to pimento, or Jamaica pepper, known to naturalists as Eugenia pimenta, and belonging to the order of Myrtaceae. It is the berry of a fine tree in the West Indies and South America, which attains a height of from fifteen to twenty feet: the berries are not allowed to ripen, but, being gathered green, are then dried in the sun, and then become black. It is an inexpensive spice, and is considered more mild and innocent than most other spices; consequently, it is much used for domestic purposes, combining a very agreeable variety of flavours.
GRAVY MADE WITHOUT MEAT FOR FOWLS.
439. INGREDIENTS.--The necks, feet, livers,
and gizzards of the fowls, 1 slice of toasted bread, 1/2 onion, 1 faggot of
savoury herbs, salt and pepper to taste, 1/2 pint of water, thickening of butter
and flour, 1 dessertspoonful of ketchup.
Mode.--Wash the feet of the fowls thoroughly clean, and cut them and the neck into small pieces. Put these into a stewpan with the bread, onion, herbs, seasoning, livers, and gizzards; pour the water over them and simmer gently for 1 hour. Now take out the liver, pound it, and strain the liquor to it. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and a flavouring of mushroom ketchup; boil it up and serve.
Time.--1 hour. Average cost, 4d. per pint.
A CHEAP GRAVY FOR HASHES, &c.
440. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of the
cooked joint intended for hashing, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/4 teaspoonful of
whole pepper, 1/4 teaspoonful of whole allspice, a small faggot of savoury
herbs, 1/2 head of celery, 1 onion, 1 oz. of butter, thickening, sufficient
boiling water to cover the bones.
Mode.--Chop the bones in small pieces, and put them in a stewpan, with the trimmings, salt, pepper, spice, herbs, and celery. Cover with boiling water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1-1/2 or 2 hours. Slice and fry the onion in the butter till it is of a pale brown, and mix it gradually with the gravy made from the bones; boil for 1/4 hour, and strain into a basin; now put it back into the stewpan; flavour with walnut pickle or ketchup, pickled-onion liquor, or any store sauce that may be preferred. Thicken with a little butter and flour, kneaded together on a plate, and the gravy will be ready for use. After the thickening is added, the gravy should just boil, to take off the rawness of the flour.
Time.--2 hours, or rather more.
Average cost, 4d., exclusive of the bones and trimmings.
JUGGED GRAVY (Excellent).
441. INGREDIENTS.--2 lbs. of shin of beef, 1/4
lb. of lean ham, 1 onion or a few shalots, 2 pints of water, salt and whole
pepper to taste, 1 blade of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1/2 a large carrot,
1/2 a head of celery.
Mode.--Cut up the beef and ham into small pieces, and slice the vegetables; take a jar, capable of holding two pints of water, and arrange therein, in layers, the ham, meat, vegetables, and seasoning, alternately, filling up with the above quantity of water; tie down the jar, or put a plate over the top, so that the steam may not escape; place it in the oven, and let it remain there from 6 to 8 hours; should, however, the oven be very hot, less time will be required. When sufficiently cooked, strain the gravy, and when cold, remove the fat. It may be flavoured with ketchup, wines, or any other store sauce that may be preferred.
It is a good plan to put the jar in a cool oven over-night, to draw the gravy; and then it will not require so long baking the following day.
Time.--From 6 to 8 hours, according to the oven.
Average cost, 7d. per pint.
CELERY.--As in the above recipe, the roots of celery are principally used in England for flavouring soups, sauces, and gravies, and for serving with cheese at the termination of a dinner, and as an ingredient for salad. In Italy, however, the green leaves and stems are also employed for stews and soups, and the seeds are also more frequently made use of on the continent than in our own islands. In Germany, celery is very highly esteemed; and it is there boiled and served up as a dish by itself, as well as used in the composition of mixed dishes. We ourselves think that this mild aromatic plant might oftener be cooked than it is; for there are very few nicer vegetable preparations brought to table than a well-dressed plate of stewed celery.
VEAL GRAVY FOR WHITE SAUCES, FRICASSEES, &c.
442. INGREDIENTS.--2 slices of nicely
flavoured lean ham, any poultry trimmings, 3 lbs. of lean veal, a faggot of
savoury herbs, including parsley, a few green onions (or 1 large onion may be
substituted for these), a few mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 blade of mace, salt
to taste, 3 pints of water.
Mode.--Cut up the ham and veal into small square pieces, put these in a stewpan, moistening them with a small quantity of water; place them over the fire to draw down. When the bottom of the stewpan becomes covered with a white glaze, fill up with water in the above proportion; add the remaining ingredients, stew very slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and do not forget to skim well the moment it boils. Put it by, and, when cold, take off all the fat. This may be used for Béchamel, sauce tournée, and many other white sauces.
Time.--3 or 4 hours. Average cost, 9d. per pint.
CHEAP GRAVY FOR MINCED VEAL.
443. INGREDIENTS.--Bones and trimmings of cold
roast or boiled veal, 1-1/2 pint of water, 1 onion, 1/4 teaspoonful of minced
lemon-peel, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of 1/4
lemon; thickening of butter and flour.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, except the thickening and lemon-juice, and let them simmer very gently for rather more than 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a pint, when strain through a hair-sieve. Add a thickening of butter and flour, and the lemon-juice; set it on the fire, and let it just boil up, when it will be ready for use. It may be flavoured with a little tomato sauce, and, where a rather dark-coloured gravy is not objected to, ketchup, or Harvey's sauce, may be added at pleasure.
Time.--Rather more than 1 hour. Average cost, 3d.
GRAVY FOR VENISON.
444. INGREDIENTS.--Trimmings of venison, 3 or
4 mutton shank-bones, salt to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut
Mode.--Brown the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a stewpan with the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours, strain and skim, and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let it just boil, when it is ready to serve.
VENISON.--Far, far away in ages past, our fathers loved the chase, and what it brought; and it is usually imagined that when Isaac ordered his son Esau to go out with his weapons, his quiver and his bow, and to prepare for him savoury meat, such as he loved, that it was venison he desired. The wise Solomon, too, delighted in this kind of fare; for we learn that, at his table, every day were served the wild ox, the roebuck, and the stag. Xenophon informs us, in his History, that Cyrus, king of Persia, ordered that venison should never be wanting at his repasts; and of the effeminate Greeks it was the delight. The Romans, also, were devoted admirers of the flesh of the deer; and our own kings and princes, from the Great Alfred down to the Prince Consort, have hunted, although, it must be confessed, under vastly different circumstances, the swift buck, and relished their "haunch" all the more keenly, that they had borne themselves bravely in the pursuit of the animal.
TO DRY HERBS FOR WINTER USE.
445. On a very dry day, gather the herbs, just
before they begin to flower. If this is done when the weather is damp, the herbs
will not be so good a colour. (It is very necessary to be particular in little
matters like this, for trifles constitute perfection, and herbs nicely dried
will be found very acceptable when frost and snow are on the ground. It is
hardly necessary, however, to state that the flavour and fragrance of fresh
herbs are incomparably finer.) They should be perfectly freed from dirt and
dust, and be divided into small bunches, with their roots cut off. Dry them
quickly in a very hot oven, or before the fire, as by this means most of their
flavour will be preserved, and be careful not to burn them; tie them up in paper
bags, and keep in a dry place. This is a very general way of preserving dried
herbs; but we would recommend the plan described in a former recipe.
Seasonable.--From the month of July to the end of September is the proper time for storing herbs for winter use.
HERB POWDER FOR FLAVOURING, when Fresh Herbs are not obtainable.
446. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of dried lemon-thyme,
1 oz. of dried winter savory, 1 oz. of dried sweet marjoram and basil, 2 oz. of
dried parsley, 1 oz. of dried lemon-peel.
Mode.--Prepare and dry the herbs by recipe No. 445; pick the leaves from the stalks, pound them, and sift them through a hair-sieve; mix in the above proportions, and keep in glass bottles, carefully excluding the air. This, we think, a far better method of keeping herbs, as the flavour and fragrance do not evaporate so much as when they are merely put in paper bags. Preparing them in this way, you have them ready for use at a moment's notice.
Mint, sage, parsley, &c., dried, pounded, and each put into separate bottles, will be found very useful in winter.
CORKS WITH WOODEN TOPS.--These are the best corks to use when it is indispensable that the air should not be admitted to the ingredients contained in bottles which are in constant use. The top, which, as will be seen by the accompanying little cut, is larger than the cork, is made of wood; and, besides effectually covering the whole top of the bottle, can be easily removed and again used, as no corkscrew is necessary to pull it out.
SAVORY.--This we find described by Columella, a voluminous Roman writer on agriculture, as an odoriferous herb, which, "in the brave days of old," entered into the seasoning of nearly every dish. Verily, there are but few new things under the sun, and we don't find that we have made many discoveries in gastronomy, at least beyond what was known to the ancient inhabitants of Italy. We possess two varieties of this aromatic herb, known to naturalists as Satureja. They are called summer and winter savory, according to the time of the year when they are fit for gathering. Both sorts are in general cultivation throughout England.
HORSERADISH SAUCE, to serve with Roast Beef.
447. INGREDIENTS.--4 tablespoonfuls of grated
horseradish, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2
teaspoonful of pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls of made mustard; vinegar.
Mode.--Grate the horseradish, and mix it well with the sugar, salt, pepper, and mustard; moisten it with sufficient vinegar to give it the consistency of cream, and serve in a tureen: 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of cream added to the above, very much improve the appearance and flavour of this sauce. To heat it to serve with hot roast beef, put it in a bain marie or a jar, which place in a saucepan of boiling water; make it hot, but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle.
Note.--This sauce is a great improvement on the old-fashioned way of serving cold-scraped horseradish with hot roast beef. The mixing of the cold vinegar with the warm gravy cools and spoils everything on the plate. Of course, with cold meat, the sauce should be served cold.
THE HORSERADISH.--This has been, for many years, a favourite accompaniment of roast beef, and is a native of England. It grows wild in wet ground, but has long been cultivated in the garden, and is, occasionally, used in winter salads and in sauces. On account of the great volatility of its oil, it should never be preserved by drying, but should be kept moist by being buried in sand. So rapidly does its volatile oil evaporate, that even when scraped for the table, it almost immediately spoils by exposure to the air.
448. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of scraped
horseradish, 1 oz. of minced shalot, 1 drachm of cayenne, 1 quart of vinegar.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients into a bottle, which shake well every day for a fortnight. When it is thoroughly steeped, strain and bottle, and it will be fit for use immediately. This will be found an agreeable relish to cold beef, &c.
Seasonable.--This vinegar should be made either in October or November, as horseradish is then in its highest perfection.
INDIAN CURRY-POWDER, founded on Dr. Kitchener's Recipe.
449. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of coriander-seed,
1/4 lb. of turmeric, 2 oz. of cinnamon-seed, 1/2 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of
mustard, 1 oz. of ground ginger, 1/2 ounce of allspice, 2 oz. of fenugreek-seed.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should remain one night; then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, and mix thoroughly together; keep the powder in a bottle, from which the air should be completely excluded.
Note.--We have given this recipe for curry-powder, as some persons prefer to make it at home; but that purchased at any respectable shop is, generally speaking, far superior, and, taking all things into consideration, very frequently more economical.
INDIAN MUSTARD, an excellent Relish to Bread and Butter, or any cold Meat.
450. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of the best
mustard, 1/4 lb. of flour, 1/2 oz. of salt, 4 shalots, 4 tablespoonfuls of
vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1/4 bottle of anchovy sauce.
Mode.--Put the mustard, flour, and salt into a basin, and make them into a stiff paste with boiling water. Boil the shalots with the vinegar, ketchup, and anchovy sauce, for 10 minutes, and pour the whole, boiling, over the mixture in the basin; stir well, and reduce it to a proper thickness; put it into a bottle, with a bruised shalot at the bottom, and store away for use. This makes an excellent relish, and if properly prepared will keep for years.
MUSTARD.--Before the year 1729, mustard was not known at English tables. About that time an old woman, of the name of Clements, residing in Durham, began to grind the seed in a mill, and to pass the flour through several processes necessary to free the seed from its husks. She kept her secret for many years to herself, during which she sold large quantities of mustard throughout the country, but especially in London. Here it was introduced to the royal table, when it received the approval of George I. From the circumstance of Mrs. Clements being a resident at Durham, it obtained the name of Durham mustard. In the county of that name it is still principally cultivated, and the plant is remarkable for the rapidity of its growth. It is the best stimulant employed to impart strength to the digestive organs, and even in its previously coarsely-pounded state, had a high reputation with our ancestors.
INDIAN PICKLE (very Superior).
451. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar
allow 6 cloves of garlic, 12 shalots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, 1/4 lb. of
bruised ginger, 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of
allspice, 12 cloves, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1/4 lb. of
mustard, 1 oz. of turmeric; a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish-pods, French
beans, gherkins, small round pickling-onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies,
Mode.--Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white, into slices, and the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt over them in a large dish, and let them remain two days; then dry them, and put them into a very large jar, with garlic, shalots, horseradish, ginger, pepper, allspice, and cloves, in the above proportions. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, which pour over, and, when cold, cover up to keep them free from dust. As the other things for the pickle ripen at different times, they may be added as they are ready: these will be radish-pods, French beans, gherkins, small onions, nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies, &c. &c. As these are procured, they must, first of all, be washed in a little cold vinegar, wiped, and then simply added to the other ingredients in the large jar, only taking care that they are covered by the vinegar. If more vinegar should be wanted to add to the pickle, do not omit first to boil it before adding it to the rest. When you have collected all the things you require, turn all out in a large pan, and thoroughly mix them. Now put the mixed vegetables into smaller jars, without any of the vinegar; then boil the vinegar again, adding as much more as will be required to fill the different jars, and also cayenne, mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard, which must be well mixed with a little cold vinegar, allowing the quantities named above to each gallon of vinegar. Pour the vinegar, boiling hot, over the pickle, and when cold, tie down with a bladder. If the pickle is wanted for immediate use, the vinegar should be boiled twice more, but the better way is to make it during one season for use during the next. It will keep for years, if care is taken that the vegetables are quite covered by the vinegar.
This recipe was taken from the directions of a lady whose pickle was always pronounced excellent by all who tasted it, and who has, for many years, exactly followed the recipe given above.
Note.--For small families, perhaps the above quantity of pickle will be considered too large; but this may be decreased at pleasure, taking care to properly proportion the various ingredients.
KEEPING PICKLES.--Nothing shows more, perhaps, the difference between a tidy thrifty housewife and a lady to whom these desirable epithets may not honestly be applied, than the appearance of their respective store-closets. The former is able, the moment anything; is wanted, to put her hand on it at once; no time is lost, no vexation incurred, no dish spoilt for the want of "just little something,"--the latter, on the contrary, hunts all over her cupboard for the ketchup the cook requires, or the pickle the husband thinks he should like a little of with his cold roast beef or mutton-chop, and vainly seeks for the Embden groats, or arrowroot, to make one of her little boys some gruel. One plan, then, we strenuously advise all who do not follow, to begin at once, and that is, to label all their various pickles and store sauces, in the same way as the cut here shows. It will occupy a little time at first, but there will be economy of it in the long run.
VINEGAR.--This term is derived from the two French words vin aigre, 'sour wine,' and should, therefore, be strictly applied to that which is made only from wine. As the acid is the same, however it is procured, that made from ale also takes the same name. Nearly all ancient nations were acquainted with the use of vinegar. We learn in Ruth, that the reapers in the East soaked their bread in it to freshen it. The Romans kept large quantities of it in their cellars, using it, to a great extent, in their seasonings and sauces. This people attributed very beneficial qualities to it, as it was supposed to be digestive, antibilious, and antiscorbutic, as well as refreshing. Spartianus, a Latin historian, tells us that, mixed with water, it was the drink of the soldiers, and that, thanks to this beverage, the veterans of the Roman army braved, by its use, the inclemency and variety of all the different seasons and climates of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is said, the Spanish peasantry, and other inhabitants of the southern parts of Europe, still follow this practice, and add to a gallon of water about a gill of wine vinegar, with a little salt; and that this drink, with a little bread, enables them, under the heat of their burning sun, to sustain the labours of the field.
INDIAN CHETNEY SAUCE.
452. INGREDIENTS.--8 oz. of sharp, sour
apples, pared and cored; 8 oz. of tomatoes, 8 oz. of salt, 8 oz. of brown,
sugar, 8 oz. of stoned raisins, 4 oz. of cayenne, 4 oz. of powdered ginger, 2
oz. of garlic, 2 oz. of shalots, 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 quart of lemon-juice.
Mode.--Chop the apples in small square pieces, and add to them the other ingredients. Mix the whole well together, and put in a well-covered jar. Keep this in a warm place, and stir every day for a month, taking care to put on the lid after this operation; strain, but do not squeeze it dry; store it away in clean jars or bottles for use, and the liquor will serve as an excellent sauce for meat or fish.
Seasonable.--Make this sauce when tomatoes are in full season, that is, from the beginning of September to the end of October.
PICKLES.--The ancient Greeks and Romans held their pickles in high estimation. They consisted of flowers, herbs, roots, and vegetables, preserved in vinegar, and which were kept, for a long time, in cylindrical vases with wide mouths. Their cooks prepared pickles with the greatest care, and the various ingredients were macerated in oil, brine, and vinegar, with which they were often impregnated drop by drop. Meat, also, after having been cut into very small pieces, was treated in the same manner.
ITALIAN SAUCE (Brown).
453. INGREDIENTS.--A few chopped mushrooms and
shalots, 1/2 pint of stock, No. 105, 1/2 glass of Madeira, the juice of 1/2
lemon, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
Mode.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the mushrooms, shalots, and Madeira, and stew gently for 1/4 hour, then add the remaining ingredients, and let them just boil. When the sauce is done enough, put it in another stewpan, and warm it in a bain marie. (See No. 430.) The mushrooms should not be chopped long before they are wanted, as they will then become black.
Time.--1/4 hour. Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.
Sufficient for a small dish.
ITALIAN SAUCE (White).
454. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock,
No. 107; 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of chopped
shalots, 1 slice of ham, minced very fine; 1/4 pint of Béchamel, No. 367; salt
to taste, a few drops of garlic vinegar, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, a
squeeze of lemon-juice.
Mode.--Put the shalots and mushrooms into a stewpan with the stock and ham, and simmer very gently for 1/2 hour, when add the Béchamel. Let it just boil up, and then strain it through a tammy; season with the above ingredients, and serve very hot. If this sauce should not have retained a nice white colour, a little cream may be added.
Time.--1/2 hour. Average cost, for this quantity, 10d.
Sufficient for a moderate-sized dish.
Note.--To preserve the colour of the mushrooms after pickling, throw them into water to which a little lemon-juice has been added.
TO PICKLE LEMONS WITH THE PEEL ON.
455. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 2 quarts of
boiling water; to each quart of vinegar allow 1/2 oz. of cloves, 1/2 oz. of
white pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, 1/4 oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of
mustard-seed, 1/2 stick of sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic.
Mode.--Put the lemons into a brine that will bear an egg; let them remain in it 6 days, stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of boiling water, put in the lemons, and allow them to boil for 1/4 hour; take them out, and let them lie in a cloth until perfectly dry and cold. Boil up sufficient vinegar to cover the lemons, with all the above ingredients, allowing the same proportion as stated to each quart of vinegar. Pack the lemons in a jar, pour over the vinegar, &c. boiling hot, and tie down with a bladder. They will be fit for use in about 12 months, or rather sooner.
Seasonable.--This should be made from November to April.
THE LEMON.--In the earlier ages of the world, the lemon does not appear to have been at all known, and the Romans only became acquainted with it at a very late period, and then only used it to keep moths from their garments. Its acidity would seem to have been unpleasant to them; and in Pliny's time, at the commencement of the Christian era, this fruit was hardly accepted, otherwise than as an excellent antidote against the effects of poison. Many anecdotes have been related concerning the anti-venomous properties of the lemon; Athenaeus, a Latin writer, telling us, that on one occasion, two men felt no effects from the bites of dangerous serpents, because they had previously eaten of this fruit.
TO PICKLE LEMONS WITHOUT THE PEEL.
456. INGREDIENTS.--6 lemons, 1 lb. of fine
salt; to each quart of vinegar, the same ingredients as No. 455.
Mode.--Peel the lemons, slit each one down 3 times, so as not to divide them, and rub the salt well into the divisions; place them in a pan, where they must remain for a week, turning them every other day; then put them in a Dutch oven before a clear fire until the salt has become perfectly dry; then arrange them in a jar. Pour over sufficient boiling vinegar to cover them, to which have been added the ingredients mentioned in the foregoing recipe; tie down closely, and in about 9 months they will be fit for use.
Seasonable.--The best time to make this is from November to April.
Note.--After this pickle has been made from 4 to 5 months, the liquor may be strained and bottled, and will be found an excellent lemon ketchup.
LEMON-JUICE.--Citric acid is the principal component part of lemon-juice, which, in addition to the agreeableness of its flavour, is also particularly cooling and grateful. It is likewise an antiscorbutic; and this quality enhances its value. In order to combat the fatal effects of scurvy amongst the crews of ships at sea, a regular allowance of lemon-juice is served out to the men; and by this practice, the disease has almost entirely disappeared. By putting the juice into bottles, and pouring on the top sufficient oil to cover it, it may be preserved for a considerable time. Italy and Turkey export great quantities of it in this manner.
LEMON SAUCE FOR BOILED FOWLS.
457. INGREDIENTS.--1 small lemon, 3/4 pint of
melted butter, No. 380.
Mode.--Cut the lemon into very thin slices, and these again into very small dice. Have ready 3/4 pint of melted butter, made by recipe No. 380; put in the lemon; let it just simmer, but not boil, and pour it over the fowls.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost, 6d.
Sufficient for a pair of large fowls.
LEMON WHITE SAUCE, FOR FOWLS, FRICASSEES, &c.
458. INGREDIENTS.--3/4 pint of cream, the rind
and juice of 1 lemon, 1/2 teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 sprig of lemon
thyme, 3 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teacupful of white stock;
salt to taste.
Mode.--Put the cream into a very clean saucepan (a lined one is best), with the lemon-peel, pepper, and thyme, and let these infuse for 1/2 hour, when simmer gently for a few minutes, or until there is a nice flavour of lemon. Strain it, and add a thickening of butter and flour in the above proportions; stir this well in, and put in the lemon-juice at the moment of serving; mix the stock with the cream, and add a little salt. This sauce should not boil after the cream and stock are mixed together.
Time.--Altogether, 3/4 hour. Average cost, 1s. 6d.
Sufficient, this quantity, for a pair of large boiled fowls.
Note.--Where the expense of the cream is objected to, milk may be substituted for it. In this case, an additional dessertspoonful, or rather more, of flour must be added.
LEMON THYME.--Two or three tufts of this species of thyme, Thymus citriodorus, usually find a place in the herb compartment of the kitchen-garden. It is a trailing evergreen, is of smaller growth than the common kind (See No. 166), and is remarkable for its smell, which closely resembles that of the rind of a lemon. Hence its distinctive name. It is used for some particular dishes, in which the fragrance of the lemon is desired to slightly predominate.
LEAMINGTON SAUCE (an Excellent Sauce for
Flavouring Gravies, Hashes, Soups, &c.).
459. INGREDIENTS.--Walnuts. To each quart of
walnut-juice allow 3 quarts of vinegar, 1 pint of Indian soy, 1 oz. of cayenne,
2 oz. of shalots, 3/4 oz. of garlic, 1/2 pint of port wine.
Mode.--Be very particular in choosing the walnuts as soon as they appear in the market; for they are more easily bruised before they become hard and shelled. Pound them in a mortar to a pulp, strew some salt over them, and let them remain thus for two or three days, occasionally stirring and moving them about. Press out the juice, and to each quart of walnut-liquor allow the above proportion of vinegar, soy, cayenne, shalots, garlic, and port wine. Pound each ingredient separately in a mortar, then mix them well together, and store away for use in small bottles. The corks should be well sealed.
Seasonable.--This sauce should be made as soon as walnuts are obtainable, from the beginning to the middle of July.
460. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of brandy, the rind
of two small lemons, 2 oz. of loaf-sugar, 1/4 pint of water.
Mode.--Peel the lemons rather thin, taking care to have none of the white pith. Put the rinds into a bottle with the brandy, and let them infuse for 24 hours, when they should be strained. Now boil the sugar with the water for a few minutes, skim it, and, when cold, add it to the brandy. A dessertspoonful of this will be found an excellent flavouring for boiled custards.
LEMON RIND OR PEEL.--This contains an essential oil of a very high flavour and fragrance, and is consequently esteemed both a wholesome and agreeable stomachic. It is used, as will be seen by many recipes in this book, as an ingredient for flavouring a number of various dishes. Under the name of CANDIED LEMON-PEEL, it is cleared of the pulp and preserved by sugar, when it becomes an excellent sweetmeat. By the ancient medical philosopher Galen, and others, it may be added, that dried lemon-peel was considered as one of the best digestives, and recommended to weak and delicate persons.
LIAISON OF EGGS FOR THICKENING SAUCES.
461. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 3 eggs, 8
tablespoonfuls of milk or cream.
Mode.--Beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add the milk, and strain the whole through a hair-sieve. When the liaison is being added to the sauce it is intended to thicken, care must be exercised to keep stirring it during the whole time, or, otherwise, the eggs will curdle. It should only just simmer, but not boil.
LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
462. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one
lemon, salt to taste, 1/2 pint of melted butter. No. 376.
Mode.--Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few minutes; peel the lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips, and cut it into very small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity of the lemon rind very fine; add these ingredients to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; season with a little salt, put in the cut lemon, heat it gradually, but do not allow it to boil, lest the butter should oil.
Time.--1 minute to simmer.
Sufficient to serve with a pair of small fowls.
LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE FOR POULTRY.
463. INGREDIENTS.--The liver of a fowl, one
tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376.
Mode.--Wash and score the liver, boil it for a few minutes, and mince it very fine; blanch or scald a small bunch of parsley, of which there should be sufficient when chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this, with the minced liver, to 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; let it just boil; when serve.
Time.--1 minute to simmer.
Sufficient for a pair of small fowls.
LOBSTER SAUCE, to serve with Turbot, Salmon,
464. INGREDIENTS.--1 middling-sized hen
lobster, 3/4 pint of melted butter, No. 376; 1 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce,
1/2 oz. of butter, salt and cayenne to taste, a little pounded mace when liked,
2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of cream.
Mode.--Choose a hen lobster, as this is indispensable, in order to render this sauce as good as it ought to be. Pick the meat from the shells, and cut it into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will be found under the tail of the lobster, into a mortar with 1/2 oz. of butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it through a hair-sieve, and cover up till wanted. Make 3/4 pint of melted butter by recipe No. 376; put in all the ingredients except the lobster-meat, and well mix the sauce before the lobster is added to it, as it should retain its square form, and not come to table shredded and ragged. Put in the meat, let it get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, as the colour would immediately be spoiled; for it should be remembered that this sauce should always have a bright red appearance. If it is intended to be served with turbot or brill, a little of the spawn (dried and rubbed through a sieve without butter) should be saved to garnish with; but as the goodness, flavour, and appearance of the sauce so much depend on having a proper quantity of spawn, the less used for garnishing the better.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost, for this quantity, 2s.
Seasonable at any time.
Sufficient to serve with a small turbot, a brill, or salmon for 6 persons.
Note.--Melted butter made with milk, No. 380, will be found to answer very well for lobster sauce, as by employing it a nice white colour will be obtained. Less quantity than the above may be made by using a very small lobster, to which add only 1/2 pint of melted butter, and season as above. Where economy is desired, the cream may be dispensed with, and the remains of a cold lobster left from table, may, with a little care, be converted into a very good sauce.
MAITRE D'HOTEL BUTTER, for putting into Broiled Fish just before it is sent to Table.
465. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 2
dessertspoonfuls of minced parsley, salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1
Mode.--Work the above ingredients well together, and let them be thoroughly mixed with a wooden spoon. If this is used as a sauce, it may be poured either under or over the meat or fish it is intended to be served with.
Average cost, for this quantity, 5d.
Note.--4 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, No. 367, 2 do. of white stock, No. 107, with 2 oz. of the above maître d'hôtel butter stirred into it, and just allowed to simmer for 1 minute, will be found an excellent hot maître d'hôtel sauce.
THE MAÎTRE D'HÔTEL.--The house-steward of England is synonymous with the maître d'hôtel of France; and, in ancient times, amongst the Latins, he was called procurator, or major-domo. In Rome, the slaves, after they had procured the various articles necessary for the repasts of the day, would return to the spacious kitchen laden with meat, game, sea-fish, vegetables, fruit, &c. Each one would then lay his basket at the feet of the major-domo, who would examine its contents and register them on his tablets, placing in the pantry contiguous to the dining-room, those of the provisions which need no preparation, and consigning the others to the more immediate care of the cooks.
MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT), to serve with Calf's Head, Boiled Eels, and different Fish.
466. INGREDIENTS.--1 slice of minced ham, a
few poultry-trimmings, 2 shalots, 1 clove of garlic, 1 bay-leaf, 3/4 pint of
water, 2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 heaped tablespoonful of
chopped parsley; salt, pepper, and cayenne to taste; the juice of 1/2 large
lemon, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.
Mode.--Put at the bottom of a stewpan the minced ham, and over it the poultry-trimmings (if these are not at hand, veal should be substituted), with the shalots, garlic, and bay-leaf. Pour in the water, and let the whole simmer gently for 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced to a full 1/2 pint. Then strain this gravy, put it in another saucepan, make a thickening of butter and flour in the above proportions, and stir it to the gravy over a nice clear fire, until it is perfectly smooth and rather thick, care being taken that the butter does not float on the surface. Skim well, add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce gradually heat, but do not allow it to boil. If this sauce is intended for an entrée, it is necessary to make it of a sufficient thickness, so that it may adhere to what it is meant to cover.
Time.--1-1/2 hour. Average cost, 1s. 2d. per pint.
Sufficient for re-warming the remains of 1/2 calf's head, or a small dish of cold flaked turbot, cod, &c.
MAIGRE MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE (HOT).
(Made without Meat.)
467. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter,
No. 376; 1 heaped tablespoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to taste,
the juice of 1/2 large lemon; when liked, 2 minced shalots.
Mode.--Make 1/2 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 376; stir in the above ingredients, and let them just boil; when it is ready to serve.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost, 9d. per pint.
MAYONNAISE, a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other cold Dishes.
468. INGREDIENTS.--The yolks of 2 eggs, 6
tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and white pepper
to taste, 1 tablespoonful of white stock, No. 107, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream.
Mode.--Put the yolks of the eggs into a basin, with a seasoning of pepper and salt; have ready the above quantities of oil and vinegar, in separate vessels; add them very gradually to the eggs; continue stirring and rubbing the mixture with a wooden spoon, as herein consists the secret of having a nice smooth sauce. It cannot be stirred too frequently, and it should be made in a very cool place, or, if ice is at hand, it should be mixed over it. When the vinegar and oil are well incorporated with the eggs, add the stock and cream, stirring all the time, and it will then be ready for use.
For a fish Mayonnaise, this sauce may be coloured with lobster-spawn, pounded; and for poultry or meat, where variety is desired, a little parsley-juice may be used to add to its appearance. Cucumber, Tarragon, or any other flavoured vinegar, may be substituted for plain, where they are liked.
Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.
Sufficient for a small salad.
Note.--In mixing the oil and vinegar with the eggs, put in first a few drops of oil, and then a few drops of vinegar, never adding a large quantity of either at one time. By this means, you can be more certain of the sauce not curdling. Patience and practice, let us add, are two essentials for making this sauce good.
MINT SAUCE, to serve with Roast Lamb.
469. INGREDIENTS.--4 dessertspoonfuls of
chopped mint, 2 dessertspoonfuls of pounded white sugar, 1/4 pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Wash the mint, which should be young and fresh-gathered, free from grit; pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, and put them into a tureen; add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the former is dissolved. This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours before wanted for table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with the flavour of the mint. By many persons, the above proportion of sugar would not be considered sufficient; but as tastes vary, we have given the quantity which we have found to suit the general palate.
Average cost, 3d.
Sufficient to serve with a middling-sized joint of lamb.
Note.--Where green mint is scarce and not obtainable, mint vinegar may be substituted for it, and will be found very acceptable in early spring.
MINT.--The common mint cultivated in our gardens is known as the Mentha viridis, and is employed in different culinary processes, being sometimes boiled with certain dishes, and afterwards withdrawn. It has an agreeable aromatic flavour, and forms an ingredient in soups, and sometimes is used in spring salads. It is valuable as a stomachic and antispasmodic; on which account it is generally served at table with pea-soup. Several of its species grow wild in low situations in the country.
470. INGREDIENTS.--Vinegar, mint.
Mode.--Procure some nice fresh mint, pick the leaves from the stalks, and fill a bottle or jar with them. Add vinegar to them until the bottle is full; cover closely to exclude the air, and let it infuse for a fortnight. Then strain the liquor, and put it into small bottles for use, of which the corks should be sealed.
Seasonable.--This should be made in June, July, or August.
471. INGREDIENTS.--To each gallon of vinegar
allow 1/4 lb. of bruised ginger, 1/4 lb. of mustard, 1/4 lb. of salt, 2 oz. of
mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, 1/4 oz. of
cayenne, cauliflowers, onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans,
Mode.--Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in which put as much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the various powders to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard, turmeric, pepper, and cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well until no lumps remain; add all the ingredients to the vinegar, and mix well. Keep this liquor in a warm place, and thoroughly stir every morning for a month with a wooden spoon, when it will be ready for the different vegetables to be added to it. As these come into season, have them gathered on a dry day, and, after merely wiping them with a cloth, to free them from moisture, put them into the pickle. The cauliflowers, it may be said, must be divided into small bunches. Put all these into the pickle raw, and at the end of the season, when there have been added as many of the vegetables as could be procured, store it away in jars, and tie over with bladder. As none of the ingredients are boiled, this pickle will not be fit to eat till 12 months have elapsed. Whilst the pickle is being made, keep a wooden spoon tied to the jar; and its contents, it may be repeated, must be stirred every morning.
Seasonable.--Make the pickle-liquor in May or June, as the season arrives for the various vegetables to be picked.
472. INGREDIENTS.--To each peck of mushrooms
1/2 lb. of salt; to each quart of mushroom-liquor 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1/2 oz. of
allspice, 1/2 oz. of ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace.
Mode.--Choose full-grown mushroom-flaps, and take care they are perfectly fresh-gathered when the weather is tolerably dry; for, if they are picked during very heavy rain, the ketchup from which they are made is liable to get musty, and will not keep long. Put a layer of them in a deep pan, sprinkle salt over them, and then another layer of mushrooms, and so on alternately. Let them remain for a few hours, when break them up with the hand; put them in a nice cool place for 3 days, occasionally stirring and mashing them well, to extract from them as much juice as possible. Now measure the quantity of liquor without straining, and to each quart allow the above proportion of spices, &c. Put all into a stone jar, cover it up very closely, put it in a saucepan of boiling water, set it over the fire, and let it boil for 3 hours. Have ready a nice clean stewpan; turn into it the contents of the jar, and let the whole simmer very gently for 1/2 hour; pour it into a jug, where it should stand in a cool place till the next day; then pour it off into another jug, and strain it into very dry clean bottles, and do not squeeze the mushrooms. To each pint of ketchup add a few drops of brandy. Be careful not to shake the contents, but leave all the sediment behind in the jug; cork well, and either seal or rosin the cork, so as perfectly to exclude the air. When a very clear bright ketchup is wanted, the liquor must be strained through a very fine hair-sieve, or flannel bag, after it has been very gently poured off; if the operation is not successful, it must be repeated until you have quite a clear liquor. It should be examined occasionally, and if it is spoiling, should be reboiled with a few peppercorns.
Seasonable from the beginning of September to the middle of October, when this ketchup should be made.
Note.--This flavouring ingredient, if genuine and well prepared, is one of the most useful store sauces to the experienced cook, and no trouble should be spared in its preparation. Double ketchup is made by reducing the liquor to half the quantity; for example, 1 quart must be boiled down to 1 pint. This goes farther than ordinary ketchup, as so little is required to flavour a good quantity of gravy. The sediment may also be bottled for immediate use, and will be found to answer for flavouring thick soups or gravies.
HOW TO DISTINGUISH MUSHROOMS FROM TOADSTOOLS.--The cultivated mushroom, known as Agaricus campestris, may be distinguished from other poisonous kinds of fungi by its having pink or flesh-coloured gills, or under-side, and by its invariably having an agreeable smell, which the toadstool has not. When young, mushrooms are like a small round button, both the stalk and head being white. As they grow larger, they expand their heads by degrees into a flat form, the gills underneath being at first of a pale flesh-colour, but becoming, as they stand longer, dark brown or blackish. Nearly all the poisonous kinds are brown, and have in general a rank and putrid smell. Edible mushrooms are found in closely-fed pastures, but seldom grow in woods, where most of the poisonous sorts are to be found.
TO DRY MUSHROOMS.
473. Mode.--Wipe them clean, take away
the brown part, and peel off the skin; lay them on sheets of paper to dry, in a
cool oven, when they will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags, which
hang in a dry place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them
gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly their
THE MUSHROOM.--The cultivated or garden mushroom is a species of fungus, which, in England, is considered the best, and is there usually eaten. The tribe, however, is numerous, and a large proportion of them are poisonous; hence it is always dangerous to make use of mushrooms gathered in their wild state. In some parts of Europe, as in Germany, Russia, and Poland, many species grow wild, and are used as food; but in Britain, two only are generally eaten. These are mostly employed for the flavouring of dishes, and are also dried and pickled. CATSUP, or KETCHUP, is made from them by mixing spices and salt with their juice. The young, called buttons, are the best for pickling when in the globular form.
BROWN MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Roast Meat, &c.
474. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of button
mushrooms, 1/2 pint of good beef gravy, No. 435, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom
ketchup (if at hand), thickening of butter and flour.
Mode.--Put the gravy into a saucepan, thicken it, and stir over the fire until it boils. Prepare the mushrooms by cutting off the stalks and wiping them free from grit and dirt; the large flap mushrooms cut into small pieces will answer for a brown sauce, when the buttons are not obtainable; put them into the gravy, and let them simmer very gently for about 10 minutes; then add the ketchup, and serve.
Time.--Rather more than 10 minutes.
Seasonable from August to October.
Note.--When fresh mushrooms are not obtainable, the powder No. 477 may be used as a substitute for brown sauce.
WHITE MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Boiled Fowls,
475. INGREDIENTS.--Rather more than 1/2 pint of button mushrooms, lemon-juice and water, 1 oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of Béchamel, No. 367, 1/4 teaspoonful of pounded sugar.
Mode.--Turn the mushrooms white by putting them into lemon-juice and water, having previously cut off the stalks and wiped them perfectly free from grit. Chop them, and put them in a stewpan with the butter. When the mushrooms are softened, add the Béchamel, and simmer for about 5 minutes; should they, however, not be done enough, allow rather more time. They should not boil longer than necessary, as they would then lose their colour and flavour. Rub the whole through a tammy, and serve very hot. After this, it should be warmed in a bain marie.
Time.--Altogether, 1/4 hour. Average cost, 1s.
Seasonable from August to October.
A More Simple Method.
476. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380; 1/2 pint of button mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if at hand; cayenne and salt to taste.
Mode.--Make the melted butter by recipe No. 380, and add to it the mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free from grit, and the stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about 10 minutes, or until they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and ketchup; let it just boil, when serve.
Time.--Rather more than 10 minutes. Average cost, 8d.
Seasonable from August to October.
GROWTH OF THE MUSHROOM AND OTHER FUNGI.--The quick growth of the mushroom and other fungi is no less wonderful than the length of time they live, and the numerous dangers they resist while they continue in the dormant state. To spring up "like a mushroom in a night" is a scriptural mode of expressing celerity; and this completely accords with all the observations which have been made concerning this curious class of plants. Mr. Sowerby remarks--"I have often placed specimens of the Phallus caninus by a window over-night, while in the egg-form, and they have been fully grown by the morning."
MUSHROOM POWDER (a valuable addition to Sauces and Gravies, when fresh Mushrooms are not obtainable).
477. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 peck of large
mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, 1/4 oz. of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white
Mode.--Peel the mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit and dirt, remove the black fur, and reject all those that are at all worm-eaten; put them into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but without water; shake them over a clear fire, till all the liquor is dried up, and be careful not to let them burn; arrange them on tins, and dry them in a slow oven; pound them to a fine powder, which put into small dry bottles; cork well, seal the corks, and keep it in a dry place. In using this powder, add it to the gravy just before serving, when it will merely require one boil-up. The flavour imparted by this means to the gravy, ought to be exceedingly good.
Seasonable.--This should be made in September, or at the beginning of October.
Note.--If the bottles in which it is stored away are not perfectly dry, as, also the mushroom powder, it will keep good but a very short time.
478. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient vinegar to cover
the mushrooms; to each quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of
ground pepper, salt to taste.
Mode.--Choose some nice young button mushrooms for pickling, and rub off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and cut off the stalks; if very large, take out the red inside, and reject the black ones, as they are too old. Put them in a stewpan, sprinkle salt over them, with pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion; shake them well over a clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep them there until it is all dried up again; then add as much vinegar as will cover them; just let it simmer for 1 minute, and store it away in stone jars for use. When cold, tie down with bladder and keep in a dry place; they will remain good for a length of time, and are generally considered delicious.
Seasonable.--Make this the same time as ketchup, from the beginning of September to the middle of October.
NATURE OF THE MUSHROOM.--Locality has evidently a considerable influence on the nature of the juices of the mushroom; for it has been discovered, after fatal experience, that some species, which are perfectly harmless when raised in open meadows and pasturelands, become virulently poisonous when they happen to grow in contact with stagnant water or putrescent animal and vegetable substances. What the precise nature of the poison in fungi may be, has not been accurately ascertained.
A VERY RICH AND GOOD MUSHROOM SAUCE, to serve with Fowls or Rabbits.
479. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of mushroom-buttons,
salt to taste, a little grated nutmeg, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 pint of cream,
2 oz. of butter, flour to thicken.
Mode.--Rub the buttons with a piece of flannel and salt, to take off the skin; cut off the stalks, and put them in a stewpan with the above ingredients, previously kneading together the butter and flour; boil the whole for about ten minutes, stirring all the time. Pour some of the sauce over the fowls, and the remainder serve in a tureen.
Time.--10 minutes. Average cost, 2s.
Sufficient to serve with a pair of fowls.
Seasonable from August to October.
HOW TO MIX MUSTARD.
480. INGREDIENTS.--Mustard, salt, and water.
Mode.--Mustard should be mixed with water that has been boiled and allowed to cool; hot water destroys its essential properties, and raw cold water might cause it to ferment. Put the mustard in a cup, with a small pinch of salt, and mix with it very gradually sufficient boiled water to make it drop from the spoon without being watery. Stir and mix well, and rub the lumps well down with the back of a spoon, as well-mixed mustard should be perfectly free from these. The mustard-pot should not be more than half full, or rather less if it will not be used in a day or two, as it is so much better when freshly mixed.
481. INGREDIENTS.--Horseradish vinegar,
cayenne, 1/2 a teacupful of mustard.
Mode.--Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the above proportion of mustard; put the mustard in a cup, with a slight seasoning of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar, adding this a little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be flavoured in various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many other vinegars, herbs, spices, &c.; but this is more customary in France than in England, as there it is merely considered a "vehicle of flavours," as it has been termed.
PICKLED NASTURTIUMS (a very good Substitute for Capers)
482. INGREDIENTS.--To each pint of vinegar, 1
oz. of salt, 6 peppercorns, nasturtiums.
Mode.--Gather the nasturtium-pods on a dry day, and wipe them clean with a cloth; put them in a dry glass bottle, with vinegar, salt, and pepper in the above proportion. If you cannot find enough ripe to fill a bottle, cork up what you have got until you have some more fit: they may be added from day to day. Bung up the bottles, and seal or rosin the tops. They will be fit for use in 10 or 12 months; and the best way is to make them one season for the next.
Seasonable.--Look for nasturtium-pods from the end of July to the end of August.
NASTURTIUMS.--The elegant nasturtium-plant, called by naturalists Tropoeolum, and which sometimes goes by the name of Indian cress, came originally from Peru, but was easily made to grow in these islands. Its young leaves and flowers are of a slightly hot nature, and many consider them a good adjunct to salads, to which they certainly add a pretty appearance. When the beautiful blossoms, which may be employed with great effect in garnishing dishes, are off, then the fruit is used as described in the above recipe.
FRENCH ONION SAUCE, or SOUBISE.
483. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Béchamel, No.
367, 1 bay-leaf, seasoning to taste of pounded mace and cayenne, 6 onions, a
small piece of ham.
Mode.--Peel the onions and cut them in halves; put them in a stewpan, with just sufficient water to cover them, and add the bay-leaf, ham, cayenne, and mace; be careful to keep the lid closely shut, and simmer them until tender. Take them out and drain thoroughly; rub them through a tammy or sieve (an old one does for the purpose) with a wooden spoon, and put them to 1/2 pint of Béchamel; keep stirring over the fire until it boils, when serve. If it should require any more seasoning, add it to taste.
Time.--3/4 hour to boil the onions.
Average cost, 10d. for this quantity.
Sufficient for a moderate-sized dish.
WHITE ONION SAUCE, for Boiled Rabbits, Roast Shoulder of Mutton, &c.
484. INGREDIENTS.--9 large onions, or 12
middling-sized ones, 1 pint of melted butter made with milk (No. 380), 1/2
teaspoonful of salt, or rather more.
Mode.--Peel the onions and put them into water to which a little salt has been added, to preserve their whiteness, and let them remain for 1/4 hour. Then put them in a stewpan, cover them with water, and let them boil until tender, and, if the onions should be very strong, change the water after they have been boiling for 1/4 hour. Drain them thoroughly, chop them, and rub them through a tammy or sieve. Make 1 pint of melted butter, by recipe No. 380, and when that boils, put in the onions, with a seasoning of salt; stir it till it simmers, when it will be ready to serve. If these directions are carefully attended to, this onion sauce will be delicious.
Time.--From 3/4 to 1 hour, to boil the onions.
Average cost, 9d. per pint.
Sufficient to serve with a roast shoulder of mutton, or boiled rabbit.
Seasonable from August to March.
Note.--To make this sauce very mild and delicate, use Spanish onions, which can be procured from the beginning of September to Christmas. 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of cream added just before serving, will be found to improve its appearance very much. Small onions, when very young, may be cooked whole, and served in melted butter. A sieve or tammy should be kept expressly for onions: an old one answers the purpose, as it is liable to retain the flavour and smell, which of course would be excessively disagreeable in delicate preparations.
BROWN ONION SAUCE.
485. INGREDIENTS.--6 large onions, rather more
than 1/2 pint of good gravy, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste.
Mode.--Slice and fry the onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the above quantity of butter, keeping them well stirred, that they do not get black. When a nice colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender. Now skim off every particle of fat, add the seasoning, and rub the whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back in the saucepan to warm, and when it boils, serve.
Time.--Altogether 1 hour.
Seasonable from August to March.
Note.--Where a very high flavouring is liked, add 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, or a small quantity of port wine.
HISTORY OF THE ONION.--It is not supposed that any variety of the onion is indigenous to Britain, as when the large and mild roots imported from warmer climates, have been cultivated in these islands a few years, they deteriorate both in size and sweetness. It is therefore most likely that this plant was first introduced into England from continental Europe, and that it originally was produced in a southern climate, and has gradually become acclimatized to a colder atmosphere. (See No. 139.)
PICKLED ONIONS (a very Simple Method, and exceedingly Good).
486. INGREDIENTS.--Pickling onions; to each
quart of vinegar, 2 teaspoonfuls of allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black
Mode.--Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with the fingers, take off the thin outside skin; then, with a silver knife (steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions), remove one more skin, when the onion will look quite clear. Have ready some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as they are peeled, put them in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with bladder, and put them in a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be fit for use. This is a most simple recipe and very delicious, the onions being nice and crisp. They should be eaten within 6 or 8 months after being done, as the onions are liable to become soft.
Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.
487. INGREDIENTS.--1 gallon of pickling
onions, salt and water, milk; to each 1/2 gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised
ginger, 1/4 teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black
pepper, 1/4 oz. of whole nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, 1/4 oz. of mace.
Mode.--Gather the onions, which should not be too small, when they are quite dry and ripe; wipe off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a strong solution of salt and water, into which put the onions, and change this, morning and night, for 3 days, and save the last brine they were put in. Then take the outside skin off, and put them into a tin saucepan capable of holding them all, as they are always better done together. Now take equal quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions were in, and pour this to them; to this add 2 large spoonfuls of salt, put them over the fire, and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly turning the onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to the top, and vice versâ; and let the milk and water run through the holes of the skimmer. Remember, the onions must never boil, or, if they do, they will be good for nothing; and they should be quite transparent. Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring them, be particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander, into which turn the onions to drain, covering them with a cloth to keep in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth, 2 or 3 times double; put the onions on it when quite hot, and over them an old piece of blanket; cover this closely over them, to keep in the steam. Let them remain till the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow and shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be as white as snow. Put them in a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and the remaining ingredients, boil all these up, and pour hot over the onions in the pan. Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and let them stand till the following day, when they will be quite cold. Put them into jars or bottles well bunged, and a tablespoonful of the best olive-oil on the top of each jar or bottle. Tie them down with bladder, and let them stand in a cool place for a month or six weeks, when they will be fit for use. They should be beautifully white, and eat crisp, without the least softness, and will keep good many months.
Seasonable from the middle of July to the end of August.
ORANGE GRAVY, for Wildfowl, Widgeon, Teal, &c.
488. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock,
No. 107, 1 small onion, 3 or 4 strips of lemon or orange peel, a few leaves of
basil, if at hand, the juice of a Seville orange or lemon, salt and pepper to
taste, 1 glass of port wine.
Mode.--Put the onion, cut in slices, into a stewpan with the stock, orange-peel, and basil, and let them simmer very gently for 1/4 hour or rather longer, should the gravy not taste sufficiently of the peel. Strain it off, and add to the gravy the remaining ingredients; let the whole heat through, and, when on the point of boiling, serve very hot in a tureen which should have a cover to it.
Time.--Altogether 1/2 hour.
Sufficient for a small tureen.
OYSTER FORCEMEAT, for Roast or Boiled Turkey.
489. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of bread crumbs,
1-1/2 oz. of chopped suet or butter, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, 1/4 saltspoonful
of grated nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 2 eggs, 18 oysters.
Mode.--Grate the bread very fine, and be careful that no large lumps remain; put it into a basin with the suet, which must be very finely minced, or, when butter is used, that must be cut up into small pieces. Add the herbs, also chopped as small as possible, and seasoning; mix all these well together, until the ingredients are thoroughly mingled. Open and beard the oysters, chop them, but not too small, and add them to the other ingredients. Beat up the eggs, and, with the hand, work altogether, until it is smoothly mixed. The turkey should not be stuffed too full: if there should be too much forcemeat, roll it into balls, fry them, and use them as a garnish.
Sufficient for 1 turkey.
490. INGREDIENTS.--Sufficient oysters to fill
a pint measure, 1 pint of sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms
of pounded mace.
Mode.--Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt, cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then add it to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five minutes, and skim well; rub the whole through a sieve, and, when cold, bottle and cork closely. The corks should be sealed.
Seasonable from September to April.
Note.--Cider may be substituted for the sherry.
491. INGREDIENTS.--100 oysters; to each 1/2 pint of
vinegar, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns.
Mode.--Get the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a saucepan, and let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes, very gently; then take them out, one by one, and place them in a jar, and cover them, when cold, with a pickle made as follows:--Measure the oyster-liquor; add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace, lemon-peel, and pepper in the above proportion, and boil it for 5 minutes; when cold, pour over the oysters, and tie them down very closely, as contact with the air spoils them.
Seasonable from September to April.
Note.--Put this pickle away in small jars; because directly one is opened, its contents should immediately be eaten, as they soon spoil. The pickle should not be kept more than 2 or 3 months.
OYSTER SAUCE, to serve with Fish, Boiled Poultry, &c.
492. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen oysters, 1/2 pint
of melted butter, made with milk, No. 380.
Mode.--Open the oysters carefully, and save their liquor; strain it into a clean saucepan (a lined one is best), put in the oysters, and let them just come to the boiling-point, when they should look plump. Take them off the fire immediately, and put the whole into a basin. Strain the liquor from them, mix with it sufficient milk to make 1/2 pint altogether, and follow the directions of No. 380. When the melted butter is ready and very smooth, put in the oysters, which should be previously bearded, if you wish the sauce to be really nice. Set it by the side of the fire to get thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, or the oysters will immediately harden. Using cream instead of milk makes this sauce extremely delicious. When liked, add a seasoning of cayenne, or anchovy sauce; but, as we have before stated, a plain sauce should be plain, and not be overpowered by highly-flavoured essences; therefore we recommend that the above directions be implicitly followed, and no seasoning added.
Average cost for this quantity, 2s.
Sufficient for 6 persons. Never allow fewer than 6 oysters to 1 person, unless the party is very large.
Seasonable from September to April.
A more economical sauce may be made by using a smaller quantity of oysters, and not bearding them before they are added to the sauce: this may answer the purpose, but we cannot undertake to recommend it as a mode of making this delicious adjunct to fish, &c.
PARSLEY AND BUTTER, to serve with Calf's Head. Boiled Fowls, &c.
493. INGREDIENTS.--2 tablespoonfuls of minced
parsley, 1/2 pint of melted butter, No. 376.
Mode.--Put into a saucepan a small quantity of water, slightly salted, and when it boils, throw in a good bunch of parsley which has been previously washed and tied together in a bunch; let it boil for 5 minutes, drain it, mince the leaves very fine, and put the above quantity in a tureen; pour over it 1/2 pint of smoothly-made melted butter; stir once, that the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed, and serve.
Time.--5 minutes to boil the parsley. Average cost, 4d.
Sufficient for 1 large fowl; allow rather more for a pair.
Seasonable at any time.
Note.--Sometimes, in the middle of winter, parsley-leaves are not to be had, when the following will be found an excellent substitute:--Tie up a little parsley-seed in a small piece of muslin, and boil it for 10 minutes in a small quantity of water; use this water to make the melted butter with, and throw into it a little boiled spinach, minced rather fine, which will have an appearance similar to that of parsley.
PARSLEY.--If there be nothing new under the sun, there are, at any rate, different uses found for the same thing; for this pretty aromatic herb was used in ancient times, as we learn from mythological narrative, to adorn the head of a hero, no less than Hercules; and now--was ever fall so great?--we moderns use it in connection with the head of--a calf. According to Homer's "Iliad," warriors fed their chariot-steeds on parsley; and Pliny acquaints us with the fact that, as a symbol of mourning, it was admitted to furnish the funeral tables of the Romans. Egypt, some say, first produced this herb; thence it was introduced, by some unknown voyager, into Sardinia, where the Carthaginians found it, and made it known to the inhabitants of Marseilles. (See No. 123.)
FRIED PARSLEY, for Garnishing.
494. INGREDIENTS.--Parsley, hot lard or
Mode.--Gather some young parsley; wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in a cloth; put it into the wire basket of which we have given an engraving, and hold it in boiling lard or dripping for a minute or two. Directly it is done, lift out the basket, and let it stand before the fire, that the parsley may become thoroughly crisp; and the quicker it is fried the better. Should the kitchen not be furnished with the above article, throw the parsley into the frying-pan, and when crisp, lift it out with a slice, dry it before the fire, and when thoroughly crisp, it will be ready for use.
WIRE BASKET.--For this recipe, a wire basket, as shown in the annexed engraving, will be found very useful. It is very light and handy, and may be used for other similar purposes besides that described above.
PARSLEY JUICE, for Colouring various Dishes.
495. Procure some nice young parsley; wash it and dry it thoroughly in a cloth; pound the leaves in a mortar till all the juice is extracted, and put the juice in a teacup or small jar; place this in a saucepan of boiling water, and warm it on the bain marie principle just long enough to take off its rawness; let it drain, and it will be ready for colouring.
TO PRESERVE PARSLEY THROUGH THE WINTER.
496. Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping,
and wash it perfectly free from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which
has been slightly salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3
minutes; take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of the fire,
when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it away in a very
dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use, pour over it a little warm water,
and let it stand for about 5 minutes.
Seasonable.--This may be done at any time between June and October.
AN EXCELLENT PICKLE.
497. INGREDIENTS.--Equal quantities of
medium-sized onions, cucumbers, and sauce-apples; 1-1/2 teaspoonful of salt, 3/4
teaspoonful of cayenne, 1 wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry;
Mode.--Slice sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint stone jar, taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in alternate layers, shaking in as you proceed salt and cayenne in the above proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It will be fit for use the day it is made.
Seasonable in August and September.
[This recipe was forwarded to the editress of this work by a subscriber to the "Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine." Mrs. Beeton, not having tested it, cannot vouch for its excellence; but the contributor spoke very highly in its favour.]
SOY.--This is a sauce frequently made use of for fish, and comes from Japan, where it is prepared from the seeds of a plant called Dolichos Soja. The Chinese also manufacture it; but that made by the Japanese is said to be the best. All sorts of statements have been made respecting the very general adulteration of this article in England, and we fear that many of them are too true. When genuine, it is of an agreeable flavour, thick, and of a clear brown colour.
PICKLED RED CABBAGE.
498. INGREDIENTS.--Red cabbages, salt and
water; to each quart of vinegar, 1/2 oz. of ginger well bruised, 1 oz. of whole
black pepper, and, when liked, a little cayenne.
Mode.--Take off the outside decayed leaves of a nice red cabbage, cut it in quarters, remove the stalks, and cut it across in very thin slices. Lay these on a dish, and strew them plentifully with salt, covering them with another dish. Let them remain for 24 hours, turn into a colander to drain, and, if necessary, wipe lightly with a clean soft cloth. Put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar with spices in the above proportion, and, when cold, pour it over the cabbage. It will be fit for use in a week or two, and, if kept for a very long time, the cabbage is liable get soft and to discolour. To be really nice and crisp, and of a good red colour, it should be eaten almost immediately after it is made. A little bruised cochineal boiled with the vinegar adds much to the appearance of this pickle. Tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place.
Seasonable in July and August, but the pickle will be much more crisp if the frost has just touched the leaves.
RED CABBAGE.--This plant, in its growth, is similar in form to that of the white, but is of a bluish-purple colour, which, however, turns red on the application of acid, as is the case with all vegetable blues. It is principally from the white vegetable that the Germans make their sauer kraut; a dish held in such high estimation with the inhabitants of Vaderland, but which requires, generally speaking, with strangers, a long acquaintance in order to become sufficiently impressed with its numerous merits. The large red Dutch is the kind generally recommended for pickling.
499. INGREDIENTS.--1 wineglassful of brandy, 2 oz.
of very fresh butter, 1 glass of Madeira, pounded sugar to taste.
Mode.--Put the pounded sugar in a basin, with part of the brandy and the butter; let it stand by the side of the fire until it is warm and the sugar and butter are dissolved; then add the rest of the brandy, with the Madeira. Either pour it over the pudding, or serve in a tureen. This is a very rich and excellent sauce.
Average cost, 1s. 3d. for this quantity.
Sufficient for a pudding made for 6 persons.
QUIN'S SAUCE, an excellent Fish Sauce.
500. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of walnut pickle,
1/2 pint of port wine, 1 pint of mushroom ketchup, 1 dozen anchovies, 1 dozen
shalots, 1/4 pint of soy, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients into a saucepan, having previously chopped the shalots and anchovies very small; simmer for 15 minutes, strain, and, when cold, bottle off for use: the corks should be well sealed to exclude the air.
Seasonable at any time.
RAVIGOTTE, a French Salad Sauce.
Mons. Ude's Recipe.
501. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mushroom
ketchup, 1 teaspoonful of cavice, 1 teaspoonful of Chili vinegar, 1 teaspoonful
of Reading sauce, a piece of butter the size of an egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of
thick Béchamel, No. 367, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3 tablespoonfuls of
cream; salt and pepper to taste.
Mode.--Scald the parsley, mince the leaves very fine, and add it to all the other ingredients; after mixing the whole together thoroughly, the sauce will be ready for use.
Average cost, for this quantity, 10d.
Seasonable at any time.
502. INGREDIENTS.--2-1/2 pints of walnut pickle,
1-1/2 oz. of shalots, 1 quart of spring water, 3/4 pint of Indian soy, 1/2 oz.
of bruised ginger, 1/2 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, 1 anchovy, 1/2
oz. of cayenne, 1/4 oz. of dried sweet bay-leaves.
Mode.--Bruise the shalots in a mortar, and put them in a stone jar with the walnut-liquor; place it before the fire, and let it boil until reduced to 2 pints. Then, into another jar, put all the ingredients except the bay-leaves, taking care that they are well bruised, so that the flavour may be thoroughly extracted; put this also before the fire, and let it boil for 1 hour, or rather more. When the contents of both jars are sufficiently cooked, mix them together, stirring them well as you mix them, and submit them to a slow boiling for 1/2 hour; cover closely, and let them stand 24 hours in a cool place; then open the jar and add the bay-leaves; let it stand a week longer closed down, when strain through a flannel bag, and it will be ready for use. The above quantities will make 1/2 gallon.
Time.--Altogether, 3 hours.
Seasonable.--This sauce may be made at any time.
REMOULADE, or FRENCH SALAD-DRESSING.
503. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1/2 tablespoonful
of made mustard, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 tablespoonfuls of olive-oil, 1
tablespoonful of tarragon or plain vinegar.
Mode.--Boil 3 eggs quite hard for about 1/4 hour, put them into cold water, and let them remain in it for a few minutes; strip off the shells, put the yolks in a mortar, and pound them very smoothly; add to them, very gradually, the mustard, seasoning, and vinegar, keeping all well stirred and rubbed down with the back of a wooden spoon. Put in the oil drop by drop, and when this is thoroughly mixed with the other ingredients, add the yolk of a raw egg, and stir well, when it will be ready for use. This sauce should not be curdled; and to prevent this, the only way is to mix a little of everything at a time, and not to cease stirring. The quantities of oil and vinegar may be increased or diminished according to taste, as many persons would prefer a smaller proportion of the former ingredient.
GREEN REMOULADE is made by using tarragon vinegar
instead of plain, and colouring with a little parsley-juice, No. 495. Harvey's
sauce, or Chili vinegar, may be added at pleasure.
Time.--1/4 hour to boil the eggs.
Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.
Sufficient for a salad made for 4 or 6 persons.
TARRAGON.--The leaves of this plant, known to naturalists as Artemisia dracunculus, are much used in France as a flavouring ingredient for salads. From it also is made the vinegar known as tarragon vinegar, which is employed by the French in mixing their mustard. It originally comes from Tartary, and does not seed in France.
SAGE-AND-ONION STUFFING, for Geese, Ducks, and Pork.
504. INGREDIENTS.--4 large onions, 10
sage-leaves, 1/4 lb. of bread crumbs, 1-1/2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 1 egg.
Mode.--Peel the onions, put them into boiling water, let them simmer for 5 minutes or rather longer, and, just before they are taken out, put in the sage-leaves for a minute or two to take off their rawness. Chop both these very fine, add the bread, seasoning, and butter, and work the whole together with the yolk of an egg, when the stuffing will be ready for use. It should be rather highly seasoned, and the sage-leaves should be very finely chopped. Many cooks do not parboil the onions in the manner just stated, but merely use them raw. The stuffing then, however, is not nearly so mild, and, to many tastes, its strong flavour would be very objectionable. When made for goose, a portion of the liver of the bird, simmered for a few minutes and very finely minced, is frequently added to this stuffing; and where economy is studied, the egg may be dispensed with.
Time.--Rather more than 5 minutes to simmer the onions.
Average cost, for this quantity, 4d.
Sufficient for 1 goose, or a pair of ducks.
505. SOYER'S RECIPE FOR GOOSE STUFFING.--Take 4 apples, peeled and cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, and 4 leaves of lemon thyme not broken, and boil them in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them; when done, pulp them through a sieve, removing the sage and thyme; then add sufficient pulp of mealy potatoes to cause it to be sufficiently dry without sticking to the hand; add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.
SALAD DRESSING (Excellent).
506. INGREDIENTS.--1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of salad oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, cayenne and salt to taste.
Mode.--Put the mixed mustard into a salad-bowl with the sugar, and add the oil drop by drop, carefully stirring and mixing all these ingredients well together. Proceed in this manner with the milk and vinegar, which must be added very gradually, or the sauce will curdle. Put in the seasoning, when the mixture will be ready for use. If this dressing is properly made, it will have a soft creamy appearance, and will be found very delicious with crab, or cold fried fish (the latter cut into dice), as well as with salads. In mixing salad dressings, the ingredients cannot be added too gradually, or stirred too much.
Average cost, for this quantity, 3d.
Sufficient for a small salad.
This recipe can be confidently recommended by the editress, to whom it was given by an intimate friend noted for her salads.
SCARCITY OF SALADS IN ENGLAND.--Three centuries ago, very few vegetables were cultivated in England, and an author writing of the period of Henry VIII.'s reign, tells us that neither salad, nor carrots, nor cabbages, nor radishes, nor any other comestibles of a like nature, were grown in any part of the kingdom: they came from Holland and Flanders. We further learn, that Queen Catharine herself, with all her royalty, could not procure a salad of English growth for her dinner. The king was obliged to mend this sad state of affairs, and send to Holland for a gardener in order to cultivate those pot-herbs, in the growth of which England is now, perhaps, not behind any other country in Europe.
THE OLIVE AND OLIVE OIL.--This tree assumes a high degree of interest from the historical circumstances with which it is connected. A leaf of it was brought into the ark by the dove, when that vessel was still floating on the waters of the great deep, and gave the first token that the deluge was subsiding. Among the Greeks, the prize of the victor in the Olympic games was a wreath of wild olive; and the "Mount of Olives" is rendered familiar to our ears by its being mentioned in the Scriptures as near to Jerusalem. The tree is indigenous in the north of Africa, Syria, and Greece; and the Romans introduced it to Italy. In Spain and the south of France it is now cultivated; and although it grows in England, its fruit does not ripen in the open air. Both in Greece and Portugal the fruit is eaten in its ripe state; but its taste is not agreeable to many palates. To the Italian shepherd, bread and olives, with a little wine, form a nourishing diet; but in England, olives are usually only introduced by way of dessert, to destroy the taste of the viands which have been previously eaten, that the flavour of the wine may be the better enjoyed. There are three kinds of olives imported to London,--the French, Spanish, and Italian: the first are from Provence, and are generally accounted excellent; the second are larger, but more bitter; and the last are from Lucca, and are esteemed the best. The oil extracted from olives, called olive oil, or salad oil, is, with the continentals, in continual request, more dishes being prepared with than without it, we should imagine. With us, it is principally used in mixing a salad, and when thus employed, it tends to prevent fermentation, and is an antidote against flatulency.
507. INGREDIENTS.--4 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1/4 teaspoonful of white pepper, half that quantity of cayenne, salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, vinegar.
Mode.--Boil the eggs until hard, which will be in about 1/4 hour or 20 minutes; put them into cold water, take off the shells, and pound the yolks in a mortar to a smooth paste. Then add all the other ingredients, except the vinegar, and stir them well until the whole are thoroughly incorporated one with the other. Pour in sufficient vinegar to make it of the consistency of cream, taking care to add but little at a time. The mixture will then be ready for use.
Average cost, for this quantity, 7d.
Sufficient for a moderate-sized salad.
Note.--The whites of the eggs, cut into rings, will serve very well as a garnishing to the salad.
508. INGREDIENTS.--1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of salad oil, 1 teaspoonful of mixed mustard, 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream.
Mode.--Prepare and mix the ingredients by the preceding recipe, and be very particular that the whole is well stirred.
Note.--In making salads, the vegetables, &c., should never be added to the sauce very long before they are wanted for table; the dressing, however, may always be prepared some hours before required. Where salads are much in request, it is a good plan to bottle off sufficient dressing for a few days' consumption, as, thereby, much time and trouble are saved. If kept in a cool place, it will remain good for 4 or 5 days.
POETIC RECIPE FOR SALAD.--The Rev. Sydney Smith, the
witty canon of St. Paul's, who thought that an enjoyment of the good things of
this earth was compatible with aspirations for things higher, wrote the
following excellent recipe for salad, which we should advise our readers not to
pass by without a trial, when the hot weather invites to a dish of cold lamb.
May they find the flavour equal to the rhyme.--
"Two large potatoes, pass'd through kitchen sieve, Smoothness and softness to the salad give: Of mordent mustard add a single spoon, Distrust the condiment that bites too soon; But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault. To add a double quantity of salt: Four times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown, And twice with vinegar procured from 'town; True flavour needs it, and your poet begs, The pounded yellow of two well-boil'd eggs. Let onion's atoms lurk within the bowl, And, scarce suspected, animate the whole; And, lastly, in the flavour'd compound toss A magic spoonful of anchovy sauce. Oh! great and glorious, and herbaceous treat, 'Twould tempt the dying anchorite to eat. Back to the world he'd turn his weary soul, And plunge his fingers in the salad-bowl."
SAUCE ALLEMANDE, or GERMAN SAUCE.
509. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of sauce tournée
(No. 517), the yolks of 2 eggs.
Mode.--Put the sauce into a stewpan, heat it, and stir to it the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, which have been previously strained. Let it just simmer, but not boil, or the eggs will curdle; and after they are added to the sauce, it must be stirred without ceasing. This sauce is a general favourite, and is used for many made dishes.
Time.--1 minute to simmer.
Average cost, 6d.
SAUCE ARISTOCRATIQUE (a Store Sauce).
510. INGREDIENTS.--Green walnuts. To every
pint of juice, 1 lb. of anchovies, 1 drachm of cloves, 1 drachm of mace, 1
drachm of Jamaica ginger bruised, 8 shalots. To every pint of the boiled liquor,
1/2 pint of vinegar, 1/4 pint of port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy.
Mode.--Pound the walnuts in a mortar, squeeze out the juice through a strainer, and let it stand to settle. Pour off the clear juice, and to every pint of it, add anchovies, spices, and cloves in the above proportion. Boil all these together till the anchovies are dissolved, then strain the juice again, put in the shalots (8 to every pint), and boil again. To every pint of the boiled liquor add vinegar, wine, and soy, in the above quantities, and bottle off for use. Cork well, and seal the corks.
Seasonable.--Make this sauce from the beginning to the middle of July, when walnuts are in perfection for sauces and pickling.
Average cost, 3s. 6d. for a quart.
MANUFACTURE OF SAUCES.--In France, during the reign of Louis XII., at the latter end of the 14th century, there was formed a company of sauce-manufacturers, who obtained, in those days of monopolies, the exclusive privilege of making sauces. The statutes drawn up by this company inform us that the famous sauce à la cameline, sold by them, was to be composed or "good cinnamon, good ginger, good cloves, good grains of paradise, good bread, and good vinegar." The sauce Tence, was to be made of "good sound almonds, good ginger, good wine, and good verjuice." May we respectfully express a hope--not that we desire to doubt it in the least--that the English sauce-manufacturers of the 19th century are equally considerate and careful in choosing their ingredients for their various well-known preparations.
SAUCE A L'AURORE, for Trout, Soles, &c.
511. INGREDIENTS.--The spawn of 1 lobster, 1
oz. of butter, 1/2 pint of Béchamel (No. 367), the juice of 1/2 lemon, a high
seasoning of salt and cayenne.
Mode.--Take the spawn and pound it in a mortar with the butter, until quite smooth, and work it through a hair sieve. Put the Béchamel into a stewpan, add the pounded spawn, the lemon-juice, which must be strained, and a plentiful seasoning of cayenne and salt; let it just simmer, but do not allow it to boil, or the beautiful red colour of the sauce will be spoiled. A small spoonful of anchovy essence may be added at pleasure.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.
Sufficient for a pair of large soles.
Seasonable at any time.
SAUCE A LA MATELOTE, for Fish.
512. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of Espagnole (No. 411),
3 onions, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 1/2 glass of port wine, a bunch
of sweet herbs, 1/2 bay-leaf, salt and pepper to taste, 1 clove, 2 berries of
allspice, a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled, lemon-juice, and
Mode.--Slice and fry the onions of a nice brown colour, and put them into a stewpan with the Espagnole, ketchup, wine, and a little liquor in which the fish has been boiled. Add the seasoning, herbs, and spices, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, stirring well the whole time; strain it through a fine hair sieve, put in the lemon-juice and anchovy sauce, and pour it over the fish. This sauce may be very much enriched by adding a few small quenelles, or forcemeat balls made of fish, and also glazed onions or mushrooms. These, however, should not be added to the matelote till it is dished.
Time.--10 minutes. Average cost, 1s. 6d.
Seasonable at any time.
Note.--This sauce originally took its name as being similar to that which the French sailor (matelot) employed as a relish to the fish he caught and ate. In some cases, cider and perry were substituted for the wine. The Norman matelotes were very celebrated.
THE BAY.--We have already described (see No. 180) the difference between the cherry-laurel (Prunus Laurus cerasus) and the classic laurel (Laurus nobilis), the former only being used for culinary purposes. The latter beautiful evergreen was consecrated by the ancients to priests and heroes, and used in their sacrifices. "A crown of bay" was the earnestly-desired reward for great enterprises, and for the display of uncommon genius in oratory or writing. It was more particularly sacred to Apollo, because, according to the fable, the nymph Daphne was changed into a laurel-tree. The ancients believed, too, that the laurel had the power of communicating the gift of prophecy, as well as poetic genius; and, when they wished to procure pleasant dreams, would place a sprig under the pillow of their bed. It was the symbol, too, of victory, and it was thought that the laurel could never be struck by lightning. From this word comes that of "laureate;" Alfred Tennyson being the present poet laureate, crowned with laurel as the first of living bards.
SAUCE PIQUANTE, for Cutlets, Roast Meat, &c.
513. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 1 small
carrot, 6 shalots, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1/2 a
bay-leaf, 2 slices of lean ham, 2 cloves, 6 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 3
whole allspice, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1/2 pint of stock (No. 104 or 105),
1 small lump of sugar, 1/4 saltspoonful of cayenne, salt to taste.
Mode.--Put into a stewpan the butter, with the carrot and shalots, both of which must be cut into small slices; add the herbs, bay-leaf, spices, and ham (which must be minced rather finely), and let these ingredients simmer over a slow fire, until the bottom of the stewpan is covered with a brown glaze. Keep stirring with a wooden spoon, and put in the remaining ingredients. Simmer very gently for 1/4 hour, skim off every particle of fat, strain the sauce through a sieve, and serve very hot. Care must be taken that this sauce be not made too acid, although it should possess a sharpness indicated by its name. Of course the above quantity of vinegar may be increased or diminished at pleasure, according to taste.
Time.--Altogether 1/2 hour. Average cost, 10d.
Sufficient for a medium-size dish of cutlets.
Seasonable at any time.
A GOOD SAUCE FOR VARIOUS BOILED PUDDINGS.
514. INGREDIENTS.--1/4 lb. of butter, 1/4 lb.
of pounded sugar, a wineglassful of brandy or rum.
Mode.--Beat the butter to a cream, until no lumps remain; add the pounded sugar, and brandy or rum; stir once or twice until the whole is thoroughly mixed, and serve. This sauce may either be poured round the pudding or served in a tureen, according to the taste or fancy of the cook or mistress.
Average cost, 8d. for this quantity.
Sufficient for a pudding.
SAUCE ROBERT, for Steaks, &c.
515. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 3 onions,
1 teaspoonful of flour, 4 tablespoonfuls of gravy, or stock No. 105, salt and
pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, 1 teaspoonful of vinegar, the
juice of 1/2 lemon.
Mode.--Put the butter into a stewpan, set it on the fire, and, when browning, throw in the onions, which must be cut into small slices. Fry them brown, but do not burn them; add the flour, shake the onions in it, and give the whole another fry. Put in the gravy and seasoning, and boil it gently for 10 minutes; skim off the fat, add the mustard, vinegar, and lemon-juice; give it one boil, and pour round the steaks, or whatever dish the sauce has been prepared for.
Time.---Altogether 1/2 hour. Average cost, for this quantity, 6d.
Seasonable at any time.
Sufficient for about 2 lbs. of steak.
Note.--This sauce will be found an excellent accompaniment to roast goose, pork, mutton cutlets, and various other dishes.
A GOOD SAUCE FOR STEAKS.
516. INGREDIENTS.--1 oz. of whole black
pepper, 1/2 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of salt, 1/2 oz. grated horseradish, 1/2 oz.
of pickled shalots, 1 pint of mushroom ketchup or walnut pickle.
Mode.--Pound all the ingredients finely in a mortar, and put them into the ketchup or walnut-liquor. Let them stand for a fortnight, when strain off the liquor and bottle for use. Either pour a little of the sauce over the steaks or mix it in the gravy.
Seasonable.--This can be made at any time.
Note.--In using a jar of pickled walnuts, there is frequently left a large quantity of liquor; this should be converted into a sauce like the above, and will be found a very useful relish.
THE GROWTH OF THE PEPPER-PLANT.--Our readers will see at Nos. 369 and 399, a description, with engravings, of the qualities of black and long pepper, and an account of where these spices are found. We will here say something of the manner of the growth of the pepper-plant. Like the vine, it requires support, and it is usual to plant a thorny tree by its side, to which it may cling. In Malabar, the chief pepper district of India, the jacca-tree (Artocarpus integrifolia) is made thus to yield its assistance, the same soil being adapted to the growth of both plants. The stem of the pepper-plant entwines round its support to a considerable height; the flexile branches then droop downwards, bearing at their extremities, as well as at other parts, spikes of green flowers, which are followed by the pungent berries. These hang in large bunches, resembling in shape those of grapes; but the fruit grows distinct, each on a little stalk, like currants. Each berry contains a single seed, of a globular form and brownish colour, but which changes to a nearly black when dried; and this is the pepper of commerce. The leaves are not unlike those of the ivy, but are larger and of rather lighter colour; they partake strongly of the peculiar smell and pungent taste of the berry.
517. INGREDIENTS.--1 pint of white stock (No.
107), thickening of flour and butter, or white roux (No. 526), a faggot of
savoury herbs, including parsley, 6 chopped mushrooms, 6 green onions.
Mode.--Put the stock into a stewpan with the herbs, onions, and mushrooms, and let it simmer very gently for about 1/2 hour; stir in sufficient thickening to make it of a proper consistency; let it boil for a few minutes, then skim off all the fat, strain and serve. This sauce, with the addition of a little cream, is now frequently called velouté.
Time.--1/2 hour. Average cost, for this quantity, 6d.
Note.--If poultry trimmings are at hand, the stock should be made of these; and the above sauce should not be made too thick, as it does not then admit of the fat being nicely removed.
SWEET SAUCE, for Venison.
518. INGREDIENTS.--A small jar of red-currant
jelly, 1 glass of port wine.
Mode.--Put the above ingredients into a stewpan, set them over the fire, and, when melted, pour in a tureen and serve. It should not be allowed to boil.
Time.--5 minutes to melt the jelly.
Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.
SAUCE FOR WILDFOWL.
519. INGREDIENTS.--1 glass of port wine, 1
tablespoonful of Leamington sauce (No. 459), 1 tablespoonful of mushroom
ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 slice of lemon-peel, 1 large shalot
cut in slices, 1 blade of mace, cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, set it over the fire, and let it simmer for about 5 minutes; then strain and serve the sauce in a tureen.
Time.--5 minutes. Average cost, for this quantity, 8d.
SAUSAGE-MEAT STUFFING, for Turkey.
520. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of lean pork, 6 oz.
of fat pork, both weighed after being chopped (beef suet may be substituted for
the latter), 2 oz. of bread crumbs, 1 small tablespoonful of minced sage, 1
blade of pounded mace, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.
Mode.--Chop the meat and fat very finely, mix with them the other ingredients, taking care that the whole is thoroughly incorporated. Moisten with the egg, and the stuffing will be ready for use. Equal quantities of this stuffing and forcemeat, No. 417, will be found to answer very well, as the herbs, lemon-peel, &c. in the latter, impart a very delicious flavour to the sausage-meat. As preparations, however, like stuffings and forcemeats, are matters to be decided by individual tastes, they must be left, to a great extent, to the discrimination of the cook, who should study her employer's taste in this, as in every other respect.
Average cost, 9d.
Sufficient for a small turkey.
SAVOURY JELLY FOR MEAT PIES.
521. INGREDIENTS.--3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1
calf's-foot, 3 lbs. of knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any
game trimmings), 2 onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of
savoury herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little spice; 2
slices of lean ham, rather more than 2 quarts of water.
Mode.--Cut up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the ingredients except the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and, when the gravy ceases to flow from the meat, pour in the water. Let it boil up, then carefully take away all scum from the top. Cover the stewpan closely, and let the stock simmer very gently for 4 hours: if rapidly boiled, the jelly will not be clear. When done, strain it through a fine sieve or flannel bag; and when cold, the jelly should be quite transparent. If this is not the case, clarify it with the whites of eggs, as described in recipe No. 109.
Time.--4 hours. Average cost, for this quantity, 5s.
SHRIMP SAUCE, for Various Kinds of Fish.
522. INGREDIENTS.--1/3 pint of melted butter
(No. 376), 1/4 pint of picked shrimps, cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Make the melted butter very smoothly by recipe No. 376, shell the shrimps (sufficient to make 1/4 pint when picked), and put them into the butter; season with cayenne, and let the sauce just simmer, but do not allow it to boil. When liked, a teaspoonful of anchovy sauce may be added.
Time.--1 minute to simmer. Average cost, 6d.
Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.
SPINACH GREEN FOR COLOURING VARIOUS DISHES.
523. INGREDIENTS.--2 handfuls of spinach.
Mode.--Pick and wash the spinach free from dirt, and pound the leaves in a mortar to extract the juice; then press it through a hair sieve, and put the juice into a small stewpan or jar. Place this in a bain marie, or saucepan of boiling water, and let it set. Watch it closely, as it should not boil; and, as soon as it is done, lay it in a sieve, so that all the water may drain from it, and the green will then be ready for colouring. If made according to this recipe, the spinach-green will be found far superior to that boiled in the ordinary way.
HOT SPICE, a Delicious Adjunct to Chops, Steaks, Gravies, &c.
524. INGREDIENTS.--3 drachms each of ginger,
black pepper, and cinnamon, 7 cloves, 1/2 oz. mace, 1/4 oz. of cayenne, 1 oz.
grated nutmeg, 1-1/2 oz. white pepper.
Mode.--Pound the ingredients, and mix them thoroughly together, taking care that everything is well blended. Put the spice in a very dry glass bottle for use. The quantity of cayenne may be increased, should the above not be enough to suit the palate.
CINNAMON.--The cinnamon-tree (Laurus Cinnamomum) is a valuable and beautiful species of the laurel family, and grows to the height of 20 or 30 feet. The trunk is short and straight, with wide-spreading branches, and it has a smooth ash-like bark. The leaves are upon short stalks, and are of an oval shape, and 3 to 5 inches long. The flowers are in panicles, with six small petals, and the fruit is about the size of an olive, soft, insipid, and of a deep blue. This incloses a nut, the kernel of which germinates soon after it falls. The wood of the tree is white and not very solid, and its root is thick and branching, exuding a great quantity of camphor. The inner bark of the tree forms the cinnamon of commerce. Ceylon was thought to be its native island; but it has been found in Malabar, Cochin-China, Sumatra, and the Eastern Islands; also in the Brazils, the Mauritius, Jamaica, and other tropical localities.
BROWN ROUX, a French Thickening for Gravies and Sauces.
525. INGREDIENTS.--6 oz. of butter, 9 oz. of
Mode.--Melt the butter in a stewpan over a slow fire, and dredge in, very gradually, the flour; stir it till of a light-brown colour--to obtain this do it very slowly, otherwise the flour will burn and impart a bitter taste to the sauce it is mixed with. Pour it in a jar, and keep it for use: it will remain good some time.
Time.--About 1/2 hour. Average cost, 7d.
WHITE ROUX, for thickening White Sauces.
526. Allow the same proportions of butter and
flour as in the preceding recipe, and proceed in the same manner as for brown
roux, but do not keep it on the fire too long, and take care not to let it
colour. This is used for thickening white sauce. Pour it into a jar to use when
Time.--1/4 hour. Average cost, 7d.
Sufficient,--A dessertspoonful will thicken a pint of gravy.
Note.--Besides the above, sauces may be thickened with potato flour, ground rice, baked flour, arrowroot, &c.: the latter will be found far preferable to the ordinary flour for white sauces. A slice of bread, toasted and added to gravies, answers the two purposes of thickening and colouring them.
527. INGREDIENTS.--Onions, vinegar; salt and
cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Cut the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the bottom of a jar; sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer of onions, and season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar is full, pour in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle will be fit for use in a month.
Seasonable.--May be had in England from September to February.
STORE SAUCE, or CHEROKEE.
528. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 oz. of cayenne pepper,
5 cloves of garlic, 2 tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup,
1 pint of vinegar.
Mode.--Boil all the ingredients gently for about 1/2 hour; strain the liquor, and bottle off for use.
Seasonable.--This sauce can be made at any time.
TOMATO SAUCE--HOT, to serve with Cutlets, Roast Meats, &c.
529. INGREDIENTS.--6 tomatoes, 2 shalots, 1
clove, 1 blade of mace, salt and cayenne to taste, 1/4 pint of gravy, No. 436,
or stock No. 104.
Mode.--Cut the tomatoes in two, and squeeze the juice and seeds out; put them in a stewpan with all the ingredients, and let them simmer gently until the tomatoes are tender enough to pulp; rub the whole through a sieve, boil it for a few minutes, and serve. The shalots and spices may be omitted when their flavour is objected to.
Time.--1 hour, or rather more, to simmer the tomatoes.
Average cost, for this quantity, 1s.
In full season in September and October.
TOMATO, OR LOVE-APPLE.--The plant which bears this fruit is a native of South America, and takes its name from a Portuguese word. The tomato fruit is about the size of a small potato, and is chiefly used in soups, sauces, and gravies. It is sometimes served to table roasted or boiled, and when green, makes a good ketchup or pickle. In its unripe state, it is esteemed as excellent sauce for roast goose or pork, and when quite ripe, a good store sauce may be prepared from it.
TOMATO SAUCE FOR KEEPING (Excellent).
530. INGREDIENTS.--To every quart of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of cayenne vinegar (No. 386), 3/4 oz. of shalots, 3/4 oz. of garlic, peeled and cut in slices; salt to taste. To every six quarts of liquor, 1 pint of soy, 1 pint of anchovy sauce.
Mode.--Gather the tomatoes quite ripe; bake them in a slow oven till tender; rub them through a sieve, and to every quart of pulp add cayenne vinegar, shalots, garlic, and salt, in the above proportion; boil the whole together till the garlic and shalots are quite soft; then rub it through a sieve, put it again into a saucepan, and, to every six quarts of the liquor, add 1 pint of soy and the same quantity of anchovy sauce, and boil altogether for about 20 minutes; bottle off for use, and carefully seal or rosin the corks. This will keep good for 2 or 3 years, but will be fit for use in a week. A useful and less expensive sauce may be made by omitting the anchovy and soy.
Time.--Altogether 1 hour.
Seasonable.--Make this from the middle of September to the end of October.
531. INGREDIENTS.--1 dozen tomatoes, 2 teaspoonfuls of the best powdered ginger, 1 dessertspoonful of salt, 1 head of garlic chopped fine, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful of Chili vinegar (a small quantity of cayenne may be substituted for this).
Mode.--Choose ripe tomatoes, put them into a stone jar, and stand them in a cool oven until quite tender; when cold, take the skins and stalks from them, mix the pulp with the liquor which is in the jar, but do not strain it; add all the other ingredients, mix well together, and put it into well-sealed bottles. Stored away in a cool dry place, it will keep good for years. It is ready for use as soon as made, but the flavour is better after a week or two. Should it not appear to keep, turn it out, and boil it up with a little additional ginger and cayenne. For immediate use, the skins should be put into a wide-mouthed bottle with a little of the different ingredients, and they will be found very nice for hashes or stews.
Time.--4 or 5 hours in a cool oven.
Seasonable from the middle of September to the end of October.
532. INGREDIENTS.--3 dozen tomatoes; to every pound of tomato-pulp allow 1 pint of Chili vinegar, 1 oz. of garlic, 1 oz. of shalot, 2 oz. of salt, 1 large green capsicum, 1/2 teaspoonful of cayenne, 2 pickled gherkins, 6 pickled onions, 1 pint of common vinegar, and the juice of 6 lemons.
Mode.--Choose the tomatoes when quite ripe and red; put them in a jar with a cover to it, and bake them till tender. The better way is to put them in the oven overnight, when it will not be too hot, and examine them in the morning to see if they are tender. Do not allow them to remain in the oven long enough to break them; but they should be sufficiently soft to skin nicely and rub through the sieve. Measure the pulp, and to each pound of pulp, add the above proportion of vinegar and other ingredients, taking care to chop very fine the garlic, shalot, capsicum, onion, and gherkins. Boil the whole together till everything is tender; then again rub it through a sieve, and add the lemon-juice. Now boil the whole again till it becomes as thick as cream, and keep continually stirring; bottle it when quite cold, cork well, and seal the corks. If the flavour of garlic and shalot is very much disliked, diminish the quantities.
Time.--Bake the tomatoes in a cool oven all night.
Seasonable from the middle of September to the end of October.
Note.--A quantity of liquor will flow from the tomatoes, which must be put through the sieve with the rest. Keep it well stirred while on the fire, and use a wooden spoon.
533. INGREDIENTS.--To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1
lb. of salt, 1/4 lb. of ginger, 1 oz. of mace, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1
tablespoonful of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1-1/2 oz. of turmeric.
Mode.--Boil all the ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when cold, put them into a jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as radish-pods, French beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these come into season; put them in fresh as you gather them, having previously wiped them perfectly free from moisture and grit. This pickle will be fit for use in about 8 or 9 months.
Seasonable.--Make the pickle in May or June, to be ready for the various vegetables.
Note.--As this pickle takes 2 or 3 months to make,--that is to say, nearly that time will elapse before all the different vegetables are added,--care must be taken to keep the jar which contains the pickle well covered, either with a closely-fitting lid, or a piece of bladder securely tied over, so as perfectly to exclude the air.
PICKLED WALNUTS (Very Good).
534. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, salt and
water. To each quart of vinegar allow 2 oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of
allspice, 1 oz. of bruised ginger.
Mode.--Procure the walnuts while young; be careful they are not woody, and prick them well with a fork; prepare a strong brine of salt and water (4 lbs. of salt to each gallon of water), into which put the walnuts, letting them remain 9 days, and changing the brine every third day; drain them off, put them on a dish, place it in the sun until they become perfectly black, which will be in 2 or 3 days; have ready dry jars, into which place the walnuts, and do not quite fill the jars. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, for 10 minutes, with spices in the above proportion, and pour it hot over the walnuts, which must be quite covered with the pickle; tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place. They will be fit for use in a month, and will keep good 2 or 3 years.
Seasonable.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, before the walnuts harden.
Note.--When liked, a few shalots may be added to the vinegar, and boiled with it.
535. INGREDIENTS.--100 walnuts, 1 handful of salt, 1 quart of vinegar, 1/4 oz. of mace, 1/4 oz. of nutmeg, 1/4 oz. of cloves, 1/4 oz. of ginger, 1/4 oz. of whole black pepper, a small piece of horseradish, 20 shalots, 1/4 lb. of anchovies, 1 pint of port wine.
Mode.--Procure the walnuts at the time you can run a pin through them, slightly bruise, and put them into a jar with the salt and vinegar, let them stand 8 days, stirring every day; then drain the liquor from them, and boil it, with the above ingredients, for about 1/2 hour. It may be strained or not, as preferred, and, if required, a little more vinegar or wine can be added, according to taste. When bottled well, seal the corks.
Seasonable.--Make this from the beginning to the middle of July, when walnuts are in perfection for pickling purposes.
536. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 sieve of walnut-shells, 2 quarts of water, salt, 1/2 lb. of shalots, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 oz. of mace, 1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of garlic.
Mode.--Put the walnut-shells into a pan, with the water, and a large quantity of salt; let them stand for 10 days, then break the shells up in the water, and let it drain through a sieve, putting a heavy weight on the top to express the juice; place it on the fire, and remove all scum that may arise. Now boil the liquor with the shalots, cloves, mace, pepper, and garlic, and let all simmer till the shalots sink; then put the liquor into a pan, and, when cold, bottle, and cork closely. It should stand 6 months before using: should it ferment during that time, it must be again boiled and skimmed.
Time.--About 3/4 hour.
Seasonable in September, when the walnut-shells are obtainable.
THE WALNUT.--This nut is a native of Persia, and was introduced into England from France. As a pickle, it is much used in the green state; and grated walnuts in Spain are much employed, both in tarts and other dishes. On the continent it is occasionally employed as a substitute for olive oil in cooking; but it is apt, under such circumstances, to become rancid. The matter which remains after the oil is extracted is considered highly nutritious for poultry. It is called mare, and in Switzerland is eaten under the name of pain amer by the poor. The oil is frequently manufactured into a kind of soap, and the leaves and green husks yield an extract, which, as a brown dye, is used to stain hair, wool, and wood.
WHITE SAUCE (Good).
537. INGREDIENTS.--1/2 pint of white stock
(No. 107), 1/2 pint of cream, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to taste.
Mode.--Have ready a delicately-clean saucepan, into which put the stock, which should be well flavoured with vegetables, and rather savoury; mix the flour smoothly with the cream, add it to the stock, season with a little salt, and boil all these ingredients very gently for about 10 minutes, keeping them well stirred the whole time, as this sauce is very liable to burn.
Time.--10 minutes. Average cost, 1s.
Sufficient for a pair of fowls.
Seasonable at any time.
WHITE SAUCE, made without Meat.
538. INGREDIENTS.--2 oz. of butter, 2 small
onions, 1 carrot, 1/2 a small teacupful of flour, 1 pint of new milk, salt and
cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Cut up the onions and carrot very small, and put them into a stewpan with the butter; simmer them till the butter is nearly dried up; then stir in the flour, and add the milk; boil the whole gently until it thickens, strain it, season with salt and cayenne, and it will be ready to serve.
Time.--1/4 hour. Average cost, 5d.
Sufficient for a pair of fowls.
Seasonable at any time.
WHITE SAUCE (a very Simple and Inexpensive Method).
539. INGREDIENTS.--1-1/2 pint of milk, 1-1/2
oz. of rice, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 1 small blade of pounded mace, salt and
cayenne to taste.
Mode.--Boil the milk with the lemon-peel and rice until the latter is perfectly tender, then take out the lemon-peel and pound the milk and rice together; put it back into the stewpan to warm, add the mace and seasoning, give it one boil, and serve. This sauce should be of the consistency of thick cream.
Time.--About 1-1/2 hour to boil the rice.
Average cost, 4d.
Sufficient for a pair of fowls.
Seasonable at any time.