Victorian London - Directories - Dickens's Dictionary of London, by Charles Dickens, Jr., 1879 - "A"

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ALTHOUGH serious consideration has been given to the choice of subjects to be treated in this book, and although earnest endeavours have been made to ensure accuracy, it is too much to hope that complete success can have been achieved in the first edition of so arduous an undertaking. Any corrections of errors which may be observed in the present volume, and any suggestions which may tend to the improvement of its successors, will be gratefully received. I am happy to take this opportunity of expressing my cordial thanks for the courteous and valuable assistance with which I have already been favoured from many official and private quarters.

There is one point as to which I am anxious that there should be no misunderstanding. Except in that portion of these pages which is avowedly devoted to advertising purposes, they contain no advertisements of any kind whatsoever. The plan of a work of this character necessarily involved the mention of names; but every statement and every recommendation made in the Dictionary is put forth either as the result of actual experience, or on perfectly trustworthy authority. No payment has been received, or ever will be received, directly or indirectly, for anything that appears in the body of this book. Whatever is an advertisement will always be honestly put before the public as such.


 A1.—This has become a common expression -synonymous with perfect or excellent, and passes current, not only wherever the Saxon language is spoken, but throughout nearly the whole of the civilised world. The term comes from Lloyd’s, and is used in the register to indicate the character of a vessel, the number at the side showing for how many years she is registered A1, or first class. Thus, a wooden ship of best materials, and inspected from time to time during her progress by a Lloyd’s surveyor, may be classed A1 15 years and upwards, though this is practically now the highest point usually attained, owing to the growing taste for iron vessels; while another, constructed perhaps in Nova Scotia or New Brunswick of soft wood, such as pine, will obtain a certificate of only A1 4 years; in all cases the continuance of the right to be described as A1 depending on periodical surveys and adequate repairs. At expiration of the time originally assigned, the character may be renewed for a term, averaging under the most favourable circumtances about three-fourths of that first allotted, provided that everything required by the surveyor be done to his satisfaction. This renewal may be continued ad infinitum, but as the surveyors’ demands would soon amount to a practical reconstruction they are seldom complied with fully more than once or twice, and the vessel after inspection is pronounced eligible only for the “A1 red” class, so called because this character is printed in red ink in Lloyd’s book. Many trusty ships are to be found in this category. Inferior to these is AE, known among underwriters and shipowners as black-dipthong. It includes many a staunch craft built before the days of scamped work and dummy rivets, but too old for the superior classes. E is the lowest grade, and is officially defined as “fit to carry goods not subject to sea damage on any voyage”; but practically, when a ship can take no higher rank the owner almost invariably leaves her unclassed; indeed in the register-book issued about Midsummer, 1878 there are but five vessels with E to their name.
Iron vessels are subject to somewhat different conditions, but in specifying their relative merits A is still taken as the peg on which the gradations are hung. Those now employed by Lloyd’s surveyors begin with 100A as the maximum, ranging downwards by falls of 5 from 95 to 75. There is indeed a class marked A without a number attached, but such vessels are scarce and mostly intended for river and shallow waters traffic. The  scale previously adopted was A descending to B and C, but the first-mentioned one is now almost invariably used. Many other countries, when adopting the plan of Lloyd’s register, copied also the idea of using A as the standard. Thus the Americans, who have several distinct and conflicting register-books, graduate from A1 ½  to A2,  and in some of the northern countries of Europe A is taken as the token. The principal French book, known as the “Veritas,” makes 3-3rds the maximum, dropping to 5-6ths and 2-3rds. (See LLOYDS.) 

Academy of Arts (Royal). (See ROYAL ACADEMY.) 

Acton (Middlesex).—A suburb on the west side, about five miles past the Marble Arch down Uxbridge-rd. It is prettily placed, but with no very special features, und is being rapidly built over; there being now a continuous line of houses along either side of the road for almost the entire distance. From Paddington or Kensington, G.W.R.(13min.), 1st, -/9, 1/3; 2nd, -/7, 1/-; 3rd, -/5. From Victoria and Broad - street, 1st, 1/-, 1/6; and, -/10, ½ ; 3rd, -/7, -/10. 

Adelphi Theatre, 411, Strand, built 1858; the old house, the most inconvenient and the most popular in London, being pulled own to make way for it. The present building is handsome and roomy, with a large balcony in lieu of dress-circle. The old Adelphi was for years the recognised house of melodrama and screaming farce, but of late it has gone in rather for adaptations from the French, commonly of pieces of the melodramatic type. There is only one entrance—from the Strand—to all parts of the house, except the gallery, the door of which is in Bull Inn-court, but there are additional exits at the right-hand side into Bull Inn-court, which can be opened in case of fire, and the main entrance has lately been divided into two; the small side door on the west side being now used for the pit, whilst the large central door is reserved for the dress-circle and stalls. Nearest Railway Stations, Charing-cross (Dist. & S.E.); Omnibus Routes, Strand, St. Martins-ln, Chancery-lane, and Waterloo-bridge. 

Admiralty.—The Admiralty, by which all the affairs of the navy are administered, is divided into two great departments—the naval and the civil. The naval department, which is in Whitehall, is subdivided into the following branches: The Secretary’s Department, the Contract and Purchase Department, the Department of the Controller of the Navy, the Naval Store Department, the Victualling Department, the Department of the Director of Transports with a special sub-division for India, the Hydrographic Department, the Coast Guard Compassionate Fund, the Coast Guard Life Insurance Fund, and the Commissioner for Property and Income-tax for the Naval Department. The office hours in these departments are 11 to 5. The hours in the Civil Department are from 10 to 4, and the branches of the department, with their addresses, are as follows: The Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy and Controller of Navy Pay , New-street, Spring-gardens; the Director - General of the Medical Department of the Navy, 9, New-street, Spring-gardens; the Department of the Director of Engineering and Architectural Works, 2 and 3, Spring-gardens-terrace ; and the Nautical Almanac Office 3, Verulam-buildings, Gray’s - Inn. The Royal Schools of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering form part of the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. The building itself was constructed about 1726 by Ripley, satirised by Pope in the Dunciad; the screen, with its characteristic ornaments, being designed by the brothers Adam, 1776. The remains of Lord Nelson lay in state here. Adjoining the Admiralty is a house for the first lord, and formerly junior lords had residences in the northern wing. There is here a portrait of Lord Nelson, painted at Palermo in 1799 by Guzzardi wearing the sultan’s diamond  plume, and in the secretary’s house are portraits of the persons who have filled that office. The Admiralty has direct telegraphic communication with Portsmouth and the other royal naval yards. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing.cross (Dist. & S.E.); Omnibus Routes, Strand and Whitehall; Cab Rank, Horse Guards.

Advertising appears a very simple affair, but it is really a difficult art, and is becoming yearly more difficult. It is still possible, with a comparatively small sum judiciously expended to produce an almost startling result. On the other hand, there are few things more easy than to fool away £1,000 in advertisements without producing any result at all. A man who could spend say £50,000 a year in advertising anything broadcast would probably make his fortune. But these are the Napoleons of Advertisement, and need not be catered for here. The ordinary advertiser must be careful so to lay out every shilling that it shall ensure at the least a fair twelve-pennyworth of publicity. To this end he has three points to consider: First, the nature of the things advertised; second, the special public to which the advertisement may be advantageously addressed; and third, the particular organs best calculated to reach that special public. The subject is too large to be exhaustively discussed here, and indeed would require a volume to itself. But a glance at the list of London newspapers will give as good an idea of the organs to choose in each case as can be given by anything but actual experience. One especial desideratum of the skilful advertiser is what is termed “display,” and against this the daily papers— with the exception of the Daily News—strongly set their faces, the Times being especially fastidious on this head, and having elaborated its restrictions to a refinement which renders evasion almost impossible. Those who do not care to be at the trouble of going to the newspaper office can forward their advertisements through an agent, who will make no extra charge except in the cases of advertisements for the Times, on which a commission is generally demanded. 

Aeronautical Club, Conduit-street, Regent-street. Subscription: Members of Aeronautical Society only, admitted at an additional 10s 6d per annum. 

Agricultural and Horticultural (Co-operative) Association Limited, 47, Millbank-street, Westminster - This association is entirely mutual, the purchasing members being the sole proprietary. Its objects are twofold. First to check adulteration in seeds, manures, and feeding stuffs, seconds to reduce the cost of these requisites, and of good agricultural implements and machinery, to the farmer. These objects are effected by systematic analyses and by co-operate divisions of profits. Any respectable farmer, landowner, or horticulturist is freely admitted to membership by election at a monthly meeting of the council. The conditions of membership are simply an investment of at least £1 in the capital fund of the association, cash payments with orders for goods, and a subscription of 5s. per annum to the Agricultural Economist, the organ of the association. Specially advantageous terms for analysis are charged to members. Farmers’ clubs, agricultural societies, chambers of agriculture local co-operative societies, an all bodies of 20 or more agriculturists associated for the purpose may become branches of the association, and obtain wholesale supply of goods carriage paid. The rules for branches, and all other information, can be obtained on application to the managing director. 

Agricultural Hall.— A large building of the railway-station order, close by the Angel at Islington. The great Christmas cattle show of the Smithfield Club is head here, as are also sundry horse and other shows. The building is now commonly opened during the winter holidays as a hippodrome. The hall has also been found convenient for the peculiar form of entertainment, first introduced to the public by Sir John Astley and Mr. E.P.Weston, and popularly known as “wobbles”. The Mohawk Minstrels permanently occupy the smaller hall with a negro minstrelsy entertainment. Nearest Railway Stat.King’s Cross; Omnibus Routes, Islington High-st, Pentonville-road, and City-road; Cab Rank, Upper St. 

Albany (The) is, although it is not supposed to be, a very convenient thoroughfare from Burlington Gardens to Picadilly. The Albany is a collection of queer houses, let as chambers. At present it has but little significance, but when George IV was old, and when Queen Victoria was young, the “Bachelor of the Albany” was a recognised variety of the “man about town”. Many literary celebrities have lived in the Albany; and in the days when the uncomfortable fashion of early breakfast parties obtained – when Sydney Smith jested, and when Rogers prosed – the old houses were a favourite resort of the wits and beaux of the time. The names of “Monk” Lewis, Macaulay, Bulwer and Bryon, and inseparably connected with these chambers.

Albemarle Club, 25 Albemarle Street, W. – For ladies and gentlemen; above 21 years old, if gentlemen; or 18 years if ladies. Entrance-fee £8 8s; subscription £5 5s.

Albert Hall, Kensington-road, was opened to the public in May 1871, and is a huge building of elliptical form in the style of the Italian Renaissance, the materials of the façade being entirely red brick and terra-cotta. The larger exterior diameter is 272 ft., interior 219 ft.; the smaller exterior 238 ft., interior 185 ft. The frieze above the balcony was executed by Messrs. Minton, Hollins & Co., and is divided into compartments containing allegorical designs, by Messrs. Armitage, Armstead, Horsley, Marks, Pickersgill, Poynter, and Yeames. There are two box entrances – on the east and west – with a private doorway from the Horticultural Society’s Gardens on the south side, and separate entrances on either side for the balcony, the gallery, and the area, and for the platforms on either side of the great organ. The interior, which is amphitheatrical in construction – like, for example, the Coliseum at Rome – is grotesquely inappropriate to any purpose for which it is ever likely to be required. For gladiatorial exhibitions of any kind, the central area, measuring 102ft. by 62ft., would, of course, though rather small, be capitally adapted. A bull-Light, even, on a very small scale, might be managed here. As a matter of fact, it is used almost exclusively for concerts, when the area is filled up with seats, and the surrounding tiers, specially constructed with a view to commanding the centre of the building, are filled with an audience whose entire attention is specially directed to the extremity, where a space has been chipped out for the orchestra. However, it is a “big thing,” at all events. At the top of the hall is the picture gallery, capable of accommodating 2,000 persons, and used on ordinary occasions as a promenade. There are hydraulic lifts to the upper floors. The hail is 135 ft. in height, and is crowned by a domed skylight of painted glass, having a central opening or lantern, with a star of gas-burners. Altogether the hall is calculated to hold an audience of about 8,ooo. The organ was built by Mr. Henry Willis. There are five rows of keys—belonging to the choir, great, solo, swell, and pedal organs—130 stops, and 10,000 pipes, the range being ten octaves. The orchestra accommodates 1,000 performers. Large tanks are provided in case of fire on the roof of the picture gallery, and supplied with water from the artesian well of the Royal Horticultural Society, 430 ft. deep, and reaching 80 ft. into the chalk. NEAREST Railway Stations, High-street, Kensington, and South Kensington ; Omnibus Route, Kensington-road; Cab Rank, Queen’s-gate.

Albert Memorial, Hyde park, opposite the Albert Hall. Erected to the memory of the late Prince Consort at a cost of £120,000. The memorial was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and consists of a bronze gilt statue of the Prince Consort by Foley, under a Gothic canopy, and surrounded by four groups of statuary—America by John Bell, Africa by Theed, Asia by Foley, and Europe by Macdowell. There are several smaller groups of statues by Weekes, Calder, Marshall, Thorneycroft, &c. Around the basement are a large number of life-sized figures by Birnie Phillip and Armstead. NEAREST Stations, &C., (see ALBERT HALL)

Alexandra Bridge is a hideous iron structure put together by the L. C. and D. R. Company to carry their line to Ludgate-hiIl and the Holborn-viaduct. It consists of long lines of gigantic lattice - work girders, inside of which the trains run, and which rest on rows of naked round iron cylinders.

Alexandra Palace and Park, Muswell Hill six miles north of London—A large building, from which extensive views of the surrounding country may be obtained. The entertainments provided are of the same class as those offered at the Crystal Palace. Admission, usually 1s. The grounds are covered with trees, which add greatly to the rural effect. The park contains about 300 acres, and comprises a racecourse, cricket and bicycling grounds, a lake, a trotting track, &c. Reached by rail from Moorgate-street and King’s - cross (G.N.). From Moorgate-street and Broad-street, 1st, 1/-, 1/10; 2nd, -/10 ¼ ; 3rd, -/7, ½ . From King’s-cross, 1st, -/11, 1/5 ; 2nd -/9. ½ ;  3rd, -/6, -/11. 

Alhambra Theatre, Leicester-square, originally the Panopticon-, a rival institution to the Polytechnic, then altered into a music-hall, and finally licensed as a theatre. Comic operas of the broader type are here given in English, the low comedy element being usually developed to the utmost extent. The specialty of the performance, however, is ballet and spectacle, in the mounting of which no expense is spared. The band is large and good. The house is spacious. All the best portion of the floor is allotted to stalls, which occupy a square space from the orchestra very nearly to the line of the boxes; the pit, which is not much more than a promenade, skirting it-on the three sides; an entrance being obtained through a recently constructed passage which passes along the right hand side of the promenade from the private box entrance. The pit and promenade run back under the box tiers, the lowest of which is occupied entirely with private boxes, having a separate entrance in the extreme southern corner of the façade. Above these comes the dress circle, which communicates with the large refreshment saloon, in which smoking is allowed. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing.cross (Dist. & S.E.); Omnibus Routes, Regent-street, Piccadilly, St. Martin’s-lane, Strand.

Alpine Club, 8 St. Martin’s-place, London, W.C.—This club was founded, in 1857, by about a dozen of the earliest explorers of the Swiss Alps, with the object of encouraging Alpine exploration and travel, and providing headquarters for those who are interested in all subjects connected therewith. It remained for many years the only Alpine Club in existence, but there are now very large clubs in France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and America. The Apline Journal, a record of mountain adventure and scientific observation—the club publication —is published once a quarter by Longman & Co. The mountaineering qualification of the club is a severe one, the object being to secure that only thoroughly experienced and qualified mountaineers should become members of the club. The name of every candidate, together with a list of mountain expeditions, or a statement of the contributions to Alpine literature, science, or art, upon which he founds his claim for membership, shall be first submitted to the committee, who shall decide upon the sufficiency of his qualification. The election is by ballot. Entrance fee, £1 1s. subscription, £1 1s


Amusements—In a general way, and especially during the nine months from July to April inclusive, London cannot be said to be well supplied with amusements. During the season—Easter to prorogation of Parliament, usually before 12th August—the West~end is gay enough, especially for anyone with influential introductions; most London gaieties being of a private character. The early morning begins with an exercise ride in Rotten-row. In the afternoon, grand parade in the same place, with splendid show of carriages in the Drive. It is here that a stranger will get his best view of the London “world.” About the middle of the season come the Derby, Oaks, and Ascot (see TURF). This is the time for excursions to Richmond, Hampton Court, Kew, the Crystal and Alexandra Palaces, &c., and for “whitebait dinners” at Greenwich. In the evening1 except at the two “Palaces,’ where occasional displays of fireworks are given, there are no open-air amusements—Cremorne, like the Surrey and Vauxhall, being now closed and laid out far building. The only things of the kind within reach are the North Woolwich Gardens, and those at Rosherville, Gravesend, both of which are worth a visit. All the theatres, however, are open, the more successful giving one or more afternoon performances per week, and there is always one Italian opera, generally two, and occasionally a French theatre. On Sundays bands play in the afternoon in some of the parks, and the Zoological Gardens are open to Fellows and those to whom they give tickets. The great Annual Flower Shows, formerly held at Chiswick, now take place at the Horticultural Society’s Gardens, South Kensington (see HORTICULTURAL Society). There are also flower shows at the Botanical Gardens, Regent’s Park—a very much prettier site. Polo, cricket and other out-door games, noted under their respective heads, are in full swing; extra “excursion” boats are run upon the river and to Margate, Southend, Ipswich, &c.; and four-horse coaches (see COACHES) run to various country towns. During August and September London is ‘empty,” and amusement, except for two or three theatres and the “Palaces,” almost at an end. Most music-halls, indeed, keep open throughout the year, but the programme is during this time reduced to its narrowest dimensions. The Agricultural Hall provides something to be looked at at almost every season; the horse, dog, dairy, and cattle shows being all of the first class. In the summer there is also a very important horse show at the Alexandra Palace; and the managers of the Crystal Palace provide shows in great variety and at all periods of the year; the flower, rose, fruit cat, bird, poultry, and pigeon shows being all excellent, The poultry and pigeon shows, indeed, surpass anything of the kind in the country. With October the theatres begin to reopen, from now to Christmas being the time when the “legitimate drama” is most affected; and with the end of December come the pantomimes and the general winter sports — football taking the place of polo and cricket, and “paper-chases” becoming popular in the open fields or the outskirts. With Lent town dulls again, the chief excitement of this period being the Oxford and Cambridge Boatrace (see ROWING). 

Analysts. —Public analysts are under the Metropolitan Board of Works. Among private analysts may be mentioned A. Dupre, Westminster Hospital; A Voelcker, 11, Salisbury-square; T. Redwood, Pharmaceutical Society, Blooms bury-sq; Dr. Wright, St. Mary’s Hospital; Dr. Stevenson, Guy’s Hospital; J. T. Way g, Russell road, Kensington; I. A. Wanklyn,7, Westminster-chambers. It is well to observe that if an analysis of water be required for sanitary purposes a Winchester quart (about two and a half ordinary quarts) should be sent. If a mineral anaiysis be required, then the quantity of water sent should be at least a gallon. Some of the above analysts undertake the analysis of gas as well as that of food water, and milk.

Angling — London anglers are in a great measure indebted to the Thames Angling Preservation Society for their sport, so far regards the Thames itself, and the goodly list of subscribers publishef in the annual report of the society shows that its efforts are not unappreciated. The society, which requires a donation of £10 10s., or an annual subscription of £1 1s. to qualify for membership, has London offices at 20, Moorgate Street, and has the benefit of the invaluable services of Mr. William Henry Brougham as secretary. Its object is declared to be in the rules, “to protect the fisheries of the River Thames, and to increase the quantity of the native fish, and to introduce other kinds by means of pisciculture or otherwise.” The business of the society is manage by a committee, who recommend among other duties, the necessary number of river-keepers, and have power to prosecute persons guilty of poaching, illegal fishing, netting and other offences against the law. For the long list of Thames fishing stations and of river-keepers, as well as of London fishing clubs, the report of the society should be consulted. Specal facillties, by means of what are known as privilege tickets, are granted by the railway companies to anglers. Among the principal stations on the Thames, within the London district, may be mentioned Isleworth, Richmond, Twickenham, Teddington, Kings-Sunbury, Weybridge, Laleham, and Staines. About 8s per day may be taken as the cost of a man and punt. There is also good fishing in the Lea (see BROXBOURNE), which is looked after by a Preservation Society similar to that on the Thames; the New River; the Brent and the “Welsh Harp” reservoir at Hendon; and other waters to the north of London; and a day’s sport may be had in the Colne, and at Thorney Broad, West Drayton. Every information of value to anglers will be found in the “Angler’s Diary,” a useful guide published at the Field office at 1s 6d – (see THAMES).

Aquarium (Royal).—This handsome building was erected from the designs of Mr. Bedborough by the Royal Aquarium Society, and opened by H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in 1876. Unfortunately the desire of the directors to obtain an immediate return for the large sums invested in the undertaking unduly precipitated the beginning of the campaign. Not only were the plans of the managers in an inchoate state, but the tanks were not only without fish became a standing joke, and the dissension which arose among the discontented proprietors further tended to create distrust of the enterprise in the public mind. After some time, the tanks were filled and engergetic management provided attractive entertainments of a superior music hall type. The extraordinary success of Zazel’s performances attracted large audiences, and the Aquarium now takes high rank among the successful exhibitions of London. The price of admission is 1s, but the management would have done wisely to take the advice of the astute Mr. Barnum, and to have eschewed the practice of charging so many sixpences and shillings for extra shows, as is now the case

Royal Aquarium, Westminster—.-A large hall, fitted as a theatre, and chiefly used for afternoon performances. It occupies the western end of the Aquarium building, of which it forms part, but is not always under the same management. The Aquarium Theatre has not yet developed any particular specialty. NEAREST Railway Station, St. James’s-park; Omnibus Routes, Victoria-street and Parliament-street; Cab Rank, Palace-yard.

Archery.The members of the Royal Toxophilite Society may be considered the representative supporters of this ancient national sport in London. The society, which is under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, and numbers over a hundred members, has occupied since 1832 pretty grounds in the Inner Circle of the Regent’s-park, in which stands Archers’ Hall where the hon. secretary may be addressed. The society was founded so far back as 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, and represents the ancient society of Finsbury Archers and the Archers’ Company of the Honourable Artillery Company. It possesses a large silver shield, presented to the Archers’ Cornpany by Catherine of Braganza, and several prize arrows of the same and even earlier periods. Members are elected by ballot. There are no lady members, but ladies may use the grounds under certain conditions. The subscription for town members is £5 5s. For town members there is no entrance fee. The rules provide that country members shall pay an entrance fee of £1 1s., and an annual subscription of £2 2s. The annual general meeting takes place on the first Friday in May. The London Skating Club established a rink in the gardens in 1869, and pay the society an annual rent. The rink may be flooded at any time between the 15th November and the 1st March; members of the society having the privilege of skating on the rink, and of inviting their friends to look on.
Members of the society may also, on certain conditions, become members of the Skating Club without entrance fee. The freedom of the Royal Toxophilite Society has been granted to the following country societies: the Royal Company of Archers, the Woodmen of Arden, the West Berks Archers. The National Archery Meeting takes place every summer in the archery grounds of the Crystal Palace, when valuable prizes are shot for by ladies and gentlemen, and a very pretty sight is afforded to the numerous spectators.

Argentine Republic, La Plata.—MINISTRY, none. CONSULATE, Craven-street, Strand. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing-cross (Dist. & S.E.); Cab Ranks, Strand and St. Martin’s-lane.

Armourers’ Company (The), Coleman-street.—The hall, which is of recent date, is not particularly interesting in itself. But the Armourers possess a fine collection of mazers and hanaps and cups, and some curious pieces of armour—the latter, however, not so good as might reasonably be expected. 

Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall.—Is instituted for the association of commissioned officers of all ranks in Her Majesty’s Regular Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines. Election by ballot in club meeting. Thirty members must actually vote, and one black ball in ten excludes. Entrance fee, £40; subscription, £7 7S. for old members; but the following resolution was carried at the annual meeting of the club on the 3rd June, 1878: “All new members who are elected to the club, commencing with the next ballot, shall pay an annual subscription at £10 10s.”

Army and Navy Co.operative Stores Limited, 117, Victoria-street, Westminster. The members consist of two classes, viz.: shareholders and ticket holders; the latter including life members and annual subscribers. The first class, shareholders, is limited to officers, non-commissioned officers, and petty officers, serving, or who have served, in the army, navy, militia, or yeomanry; the widows, sons, and daughters of officers; the secretaries, or other recognised officers of the military and naval clubs, and representatives of regimental and naval messes and canteens. The shares are of the value of £1 each, and holders of one or more shares are entitled to participate in the profits, to deal at the stares, and with the tradesmen connected with the society, and to have certain privileges with regard to the carnage of goods. Life members comprise officers serving, or who have served, in the army, navy, militia, or yeomanry, and widows, sons, or daughters of officers, who do not wish to take shares or to be annual subscribers: also widows of shareholders who would have been qualified to be life members. The payment for a life ticket £1 1s. Annual subscribers, who pay 5s. the first year and 2s. 6d. each subsequent year, consist of persons eligible to become shareholders, but who do not wish to take shares, and other persons who may be introduced, subject to the approval of the committee of management. They will enjoy all the privileges possessed by shareholders, except participation in the profits and management of the society, or the special advantage as to carriage of parcels. Annual tickets can be obtained by personal or written application to the secretary. Annual tickets date from the 1st January in each year. The directors reserve to themselves the right of declining to renew any annual ticket, or to cancel any ticket on repayment of the current year’s subscription.

Arthur’s Club, St. James’s, W.—Non-political. Entrance fee, £31 10s.; annual subscription, £10 10s.

Artillery CompanyThe Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London dates from as far back as 1585, when its members were known as the City Trained Band. In 1610 the City soldiers were re-organised: in the Civil War they fought stoutly for the Commonwealth, and they were appropriately called upon to defend the Bank of England during the Gordon Riots. Fortunately since that occasion they have only been required to furnish guards of honour and to assist in civic and state ceremonials. The Artillery Ground, near Finsbury-square, contains a good drill-hall armoury and the like. The Honourable Artillery Company is noticeable as being the only volunteer corps which includes horse artillery, and is distinguished by weaning the bearskin head-dress otherwise peculiar to the Guards.

Art Training School (National), SOUTH KENSLNGTON.—Director for Art and Principal , Edward J. Poynter, R.A, The courses of instruction pursued in the school have for their object the systematic training of teachers, male and female, in the practice of art and in the knowledge of its scientific principles, with a view to qualifying them as teachers of schools of art competent to develop the application of art to the common uses of life, and to the requirements of trade and manufactures. The instruction comprehends the following subjects: freehand, architectural, and mechanical drawing; practical geometry and perspective; painting in oil, tempera, and water-colours; modelling, moulding, and casting. The classes for drawing, painting, and modelling include architectural and other ornament flowers objects of still-life, &c., the figure from the antique and the life, and the study of anatomy as applicable to art. These courses of instruction are open to the public on the payment of fees; the classes for male and female students meeting separately. The fees are as follows: Fees for classes studying five whole days, including evenings, £5 for five months, and an entrance fee of 10s. Evening classes : male school, £2 per session; female school, £1 per session, three evenings a week, Teachers in private schools or families may attend the day classes for not more than three months on payment of £1 per month, without payment of the entrance fee. An evening artisan class is held in the elementary room, fees 10s. per session, or 30s. per month. Students of this class may pass into the general class-rooms at the same fee when they have passed examinations in the four subjects of the and grade. No students can be admitted to these classes until they have passed an examination in freehand drawing of the and grade. Examinations of candidates for admission will be held weekly at the commencement of each session, and at frequent intervals throughout the year. These examinations are held at the school on Tuesdays at 10.30 a.m. and 6.45 p.m. The examination fee is 2s. 6d. for day students, and 6d. for evening students, to be paid at the time of examination. Candidates should bring their own lead pencils and india-rubber. Unsuccessful candidates cannot be re-examined until after a month’s interval. Candidates who have already passed examination in and grade freehand drawing are admitted, on application to the registrar, without further examination. The annual sessions, each lasting five months, commence on the 1st of March and the 1st of October, and end on the last day of July, and the last day of February respectively. Students who have passed the examination may join the school at any time, on payment of fees for not less than five months, but those who have already paid fees for five months may remain until the end of the scholastic year on payment of a proportional fee for each month unexpired up to the 31st July in each year. The months of August and September are not counted as part of the five months paid for. The months of August and September, one week at Christmas, and one week at Easter and Whitsuntide, are vacations. The school is open every day, except Saturday. Hours of study: day, 9 to 3.30; evening, 7 to 9. Evening classes for females on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays. All day-students are expected to attend at 9 a.m., and to remain in the school until the -bell rings at 3.30 p.m., except during the half-hour for lunch from a to 1.30 p.m., or when permission has been specially obtained. Classes for schoolmasters, schoolmistresses, and pupil-teachers of public elementary schools, meet on two evenings in each week. Fee, 5s. for the session. Students properly qualified have full access to the collections of the museum and library, either for consultation or copying, as well as to all the school lectures of the department. A register of the students’ attendance is kept, and may be consulted by parents and guardians.
Further information may be obtained on personal application to the Registrar at the schools, or by letter addressed to the Secretary, Science and Art Department.
A course of twelve lectures on anatomy, as applicable to the arts, is given in each session. The spring course may be attended by ladies. Fee for the course, 6s, -For a single lecture, 1s. Other lectures will be delivered occasionally, and duly announced. The schools are open free for the inspection of the public every Saturday, from 2 till dusk. Entrance through the museum.
Metropolitan District Schools of Art are now established at the following places: The Female School of Art, 43, Queen-square, Bloomsbury; City and Spitalfields, New Bishopsgate Ward; St. Thomas Charterhouse, Goswell-road; St. Martin’s-in-the.fields, Castle-street, Long-acre; Lambeth, Miller’s-lane, Upper Kennington-lane; West London, 204, Great Portland-street; North London, Sandringham-road, Kingsland; Islington, 21, cross-street; Stratford, Maryland Point; Westminster, St. Mary’s, Hyde - place, Vincent-square ; Westminster, Royal Architectural Museum. These schools are open in the evening from 7 to 9, and there are female classes at most of them. Applications for admission, prospectuses, or any other information, should be made at the schools in each district. There is an annual examination for prizes in all the schools, and a national competition.
ART LIBRARY at South Kennsington is open during the same hours as the Museum. It contains about 45,000 volumes and pamphlets on all subjects bearing on art; a collection of about 17,000 drawings, designs, and illuminations; about 6o,ooo engravings, chiefly of ornament; and about 45,000 photographs of architecture, objects of art, original drawings, &c. All its contents are rendered, as far as possible, available to students of the schools of art and general readers.
THE MUSEUM lends books and objects to all schools of art.
The new buildings which came into use on the 5th October, 1863, are the first permanent buildings which have been provided for the National Art Training Schools. A distinct series of rooms has been provided for male and female students. In each series separate rooms are assigned to drawing, painting, and modelling, &c., and there is a lecture-room in common for the male and female classes. The entrances to the respective daises are in Exhibition-road.
The Collections comprise: Objects of Ornamental Art as applied to Manufactures; the National Art Library; British Pictures, Sculptures, and Engravings; the Educational Library and Collections, including appliances and models for scholastic education, scientific apparatus. &c,; Materials and Models for Building and Construction: Substances used for Food; Reproductions, means of Casting, Electrotype and Photography, of objects displaying the Art-Manufactures of all nations ; Naval Models, NEAREST Railway Station, South Kensington; Omnibus Routes Brornpton-road and Fulham-road; Cab Rank, Opposite.

Arts Club, Hanover square - W.—This club is instituted for the purpose of facilitating the social intercourse of those connected with, or interested in, art literature, or science. Candidates for membership must have a bona fide qualification. Entrance fee, £10 10s; annual subscription £6 6s.  Supernumerary members pay an annual subscription of £1 1s, the non-payment of which during a period of two years is considered as an intimation of resignation. 

Ascot - Picturesque country high and healthy, sandy soil; lies about south-west. Rent very high, and houses difficult to obtain but a considerable portion, if not the whole of the rent may usually be cleared off in the case of houses with good stabling accommodation by letting off during the “Ascot week,” when villas anywhere with in easy of the course fetch fabulous imnxces (see TURF).— From Waterloo Loop (1h. 7m.), 1st, 5/-, 7/6; 2nd, 3/6, 5/6; 3rd, 2/5.

Ashes with all other refuse are cleared away by the carts of the regular dust contractors. If the carts do not pass often enough, or you have any difficulty with them, write to the Vestry Clerk. If still unsuccessful. Apply at the police-court. No vegetable or animal refuse ought, under any circumstances, to be thrown into the dust-bin. It should all be first dried under the kitchen fire and then burned. N.B. – Dust contractors are not bound to receive trade refuse, for which a special arrangement must be made.

Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall – Eminence in, or patronage of, science, literature, or any branch of the fine arts, are the qualifications for membership of this club. The Athenaeum possesses one of the best club houses, and certainly the best club library in England. Election is by ballot in committee. Entrance fee, £31 10s; subscription, £8 8s.

Athletics. — Clubs for the practice of athletic sports of all kinds exist in London in great numbers, and it is only possible here to mention three of the principal and most representative associations: the Amateur Athletic Club, the London Athletic Club, and the German Gymnastic Society. The Amateur Athletic Club has for its objects the promotion and supervision of athletic sports and pastimes, and the ensuring “as far as practicable that they are legitimately and honourably conducted.” Members are divided into two classes, honorary and active; the former paying one sum of twelve guineas, and the latter an annual subscription of two guineas. The election is by committee, and one black ball excludes. The grounds of the club at Lillie-bridge (nearest stations, Lillie-bridge and Earl’s-court, on the District Railway; cab fare, from Charing -cross, 2s; from the Bank of England, 2s. 6d.) comprise a running track four laps to the mile; gymnasium; skating cause-way, which is flooded in winter for real ice skating ; with good pavilion, &c. The athletic sports of the two great Universities are held here, as well as the competitions for the amateur championships, and the military meeting. There is a ladies’ class for gymnastics, and lawn tennis is played in the open and under cover.
The London Athletic Club is by far the most important of all the clubs with similar objects in London, Founded on the remains of the old Mincing-lane Club, it now contains nearly 700 members, and takes the lead in almost all matters connected with amateur pedestrianism. Its object is declared to be the cultivation of athletic sports, and it consists of active and non-active members. The former pay £1 1s. annually, and £1 1s. entrance-fee. After paying three annual subscriptions a member can, by paying an additional sum of £5s 5s., become free of the club. Active members are admitted to all the advantages of the club; non-active members are not permitted to compete in the sports. The election, after the candidate has been duly proposed and seconded, is by committee, one black ball in five excluding. Meetings for prizes given by the club take place frequently, and one of the most important rules is that “no member may enter for any sports which are not confined to amateurs, nor compete with professional runners for either prize or money.” The definition of an amateur does not appear in the rules, and the question would seem to be left to be settled by the committee from time to time, as the entries (to the open competitions) of all strangers are subject to the ballot of the committee, the club always reserving the right of refusing the entry of anyone not a member of the club. The London Athletic Club possesses seven handsome challenge cups (100 yards, quarter of a mile, half a mile, 1 mile, 3 miles, 7 miles walking, and 10 miles), which are considered as being their absolute property. There are also three other cups which may, in the event of a certain number of victories, be won by some fortunate athlete. These are the half-mile wimming cup, the 220 yards cups, and the 600 yards cup, called the “China cup”, from the fact of its having been presented to the club by some old members now resident in China. The club has an excellent ground at Stamford-bridge, Fulham, opposite the Chelsea Station of the West London Extension Railway (cab fare from Charing-cross, 2s. ; from the Bank of England, 3s.), with a first-rate path of four laps to the mile, and a straight run of 250 yards. There are convenient dressing-rooms, and all the usual pavilion accommodation. Lawn tennis is provided for those whose ambition does not go to winning a handicap or beating “the best on record.” A boxing class is held during the winter months at Professor White’s, 22, Golden-square. That the London Athletic Club is in a very “live” state will be seen at once when it is stated that in 1878 there were 90 competitions for 182 prizes, fur which over 1,000 starters came to the post, and that 268 new members were elected during the year.
As the London Athletic Club takes the lead among the clubs formed for the practice of athletics in general, so the German Gymnastic Society, which was founded in 1861, stands at the head of all institutions of its class. Whether “the art of gymnastics will restore the lost equilibrium of human education,” as appears to be the opinion of the leaders of the society, may be an open question. It is, at all events, certain that the G.G.S. does not neglect any means by which this desirable end may be obtained, The thousand and seventy-three members who were on the roll in 1878 not only had the opportunity of thoroughly learning all that the German system of gymnastics has to teach, combined with fencing and boxing, but the privilege of joining a singing-class, a literary club, and an English dramatic club; a library of 2,500 volumes being also at their disposal. A ladies’ class is held twice a week. The entrance-fee is 5s., and the yearly subscription £1 10s. A ha If-yearly subscription of optional, should the subscriber only desire to avail himself of the advantages of the society for that period. The gymnasium is situated at 26, Pancras-road, King’s-cross, N.W. The nearest railway stations are the King’s-cross terminus of the Great Northern, the St. Pancras terminus of the Midland, and the King’s-cross junction of the Metropolitan. It us also convenient for all omnibuses passing King’s-cross.
During the winter there is plenty of cross-country sport promoted by the paper-chasing clubs, of which there are a dozen or more in various parts of London. The oldest of these is the “Thames Hare and Hounds,” with headquarters at the “King’s Head” Roehampton ; and next in importance come the “South London Harriers,” running from the “Greyhound,” Streatham; and the “Spartan Harriers,” hailing from the “Angel” at Edmonton.
In addition to the general sporting papers, the Athletic World, published at 11, Ave Maria-lane, will be of interest to athletes.

Auctions, of all kinds, are institutions which those who have not their London at their finger-ends would do well to avoid. The “MOCK AUCTION” is a swindle pure and simple. It is commonly carried on in a small shop, carefully darkened by filling the window with all kinds of ostensible merchandise, and tenanted chiefly by the proprietor and his confederates, who k?? up a lively bidding till some unwary passer-by is seduced into entering, and speedily “stuck with” some perfectly worthless article at a fabulous price. Should the victim find that he is called upon to pay too dearly for his folly, he may, by stoutly denying having made any bid, calling in the police, and, if necessary, showing fight, make his way out again scot free. But he will possibly be roughly handled, probably have his pockets picked, nd certainly pass an extremely “mauvais quart d’heure.” There is also a kind of sale of a less distinctly fraudulent description, but still anything but bona fide. It takes place at auction rooms of more or less legitimate position, usually in the evening, and is known to the initiated as a “rigged sale,” consisting chiefly of articles vamped up or originally manufactured for the purpose. It is, indeed, a too frequent custom among the less responsible auctioneers to introduce a number of such articles into sales, and the purchaser will do well to bear this in mind. But the “rigged sale” is practically a mart for such articles only, and for anyone in search of value for his money there are few better places to avoid. The legitimate auction is, of course, a different affair. But the casual patron of the smaller auction sales will not find himself very much better off. As a buyer he will be opposed by a mob of “brokers,” all in league with each other to either crush him altogether or run him up to the highest price that can be screwed out of him. As a seller he will find the same combination exerting all their skill to secure the knocking down of each lot to one of their own gang; the article being afterwards again put up privately amongst themselves, and the profits of the transaction divided among the confederates in the “knock-out.” The only chance for a novice is, when selling, either to get an experienced friend to watch the sale, or to put a reserve price upon the article; when buying, to make up his mind as to the highest price he is prepared to pay and put himself in the hands of a broker, who, he may be quite sure, will find it necessary to go stall events exceedingly near it. The good behaviour of the brokers is, it may be added, in direct proportion to the professional standing and firmness of the auctioneers, with some of whom even the most persevering and obtrusive never attempt to take any liberties. The principal auction-rooms are :—Christie’s, King-street, St. James’s, and Foster’s, Pall Mall, for pictures, china, and valuables generally; Phillips, 73, New Bond-street. for works of art, furniture, &c-; Hodgson’s, 115, Chancery-lane, Puttick and Simpsons 47, Lexcester-square, and Sotheby, Wilkinson, and Hodge, 13 Wellington Street, Strand for books &c.; Oxenham’s, 353 Oxford Street, and Bonham’s, 409, Qxford street, for household furniture. &c.; Debenham, Storr, and Sons, 26, King-street, Covent Garden, for wearing apparel jewellery, and all kinds of miscellaneous propertv; Johnson and Dymond, Gracechurch Street also for miscellaneous property; and Stevens, 38, King-street, Covent Garden, with a specialty for poultry and pigeons, plants and bulbs. The principal sales, by the leading auctioneers, of valuable property, such as land, houses, reversions, &c., are held at the Auction Mart, Tokenhouse-yard, E.C. Horses, carriages, &c., are sold at Tattersall’s, Knightsbride, and at Aldridge’s, St. Martin’s-lane. The principal sales of foreign and colonial produce are held by the brokers concerned at the Commercial Sale Rooms, Mincing-lane. The wool sales take place at the Wool Exchange, in Coleman-street. Timber is largely sold at the “Baltic.”

Austria and Hungary.— EMBASSY, 18, Belgrave-sq, S.W. NEAREST Railway Stations Victoria; Omnibus’ Routes, Knightsbridge, Grosvenor-place, Buckingham Palace-road, and Sloane-street. CONSULATE, 29, St. Swithin’s-lane. NEAREST Railway Stations, Mansion House (Dist.) and Cannon-street (S.E.); Omnibus Routes, King William-st, Cannon-street, and Queen Victoria-street; Cab Rank, King William-street.