Victorian London - Directories - Dickens's Dictionary of London, by Charles Dickens, Jr., 1879 - "COM-CUS"

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Committee of County Court Judges, Treasury Chambers, Whitehall.—NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster-bridge; Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Parliament-street; Cab Rank, Horse Guards.

Committee of Privy Council for Trade, Whitehall gardens, S.W.—NEAREST Railway Station, Westminster-bridge; Omnibus Routes, Whitehall and Strand; Cab Rank, Horse Guards. Commonly known as the Board of Trade, with the following sub. departments: Standard Weights and Measures, 7, Old Palace. yard, S.W. (hours 11 to 5) Corn Return Inspector's office, Mark-lane, E.C. (hours 10 to 4) Gas Referees; General Register and Record Office of Shipping and Seamen, 82, Basinghall-street, SW. (hours 10 to 4); Consultation Branch of the Marine Department, 13, Downing-street; Office for Survey and Measurement of Steamships, Examination of Engineers and Superintendence of Emigration, St. Katharine Dock House Tower-hill.

Common Lodging Houses.—The Common Lodging House Act has worked a marvellous revolution in the housing of the London poor. Every establishment of the kind throughout the metropolis is now under direct and continual police supervision; every room being inspected and measured before occupation, and having a placard hung up in each stating the number of beds for which it is licensed, calculated upon the basis of a minimum allowance of space for each person. Every bed, moreover, has to be furnished weekly with a complete supply of fresh linen, whilst careful provision is made for the ventilation of the rooms, the windows of which are also thrown open throughout the house at 10 am., at which hour the night's tenancy of the occupant is supposed to terminate. In its way there are few things more striking, especially to those whose acquaintance with the slums and rookeries of London dates from before the passing of this admirable Act, than the comparative sweetness of these dormitories, even when crowded with tramps and thieves of the lowest class. The common sitting-rooms on the ground floor are not it must be confessed, always equally above reproach. But even with the worst the upstairs region is at least comparatively sweet, and there are but very few that, in point of atmosphere, need shrink from comparison with any ordinary London lodging at £1 1s. or £1 10s. a week. In all cases, too, the men's and women's dormitories are separate; rooms devoted to married couples being partitioned off exactly in the fashion of the old square-pewed churches, and into separate pens upon about the same scale. The mixed lodging-houses— or those at which both sexes are received—are comparatively few, the general practice being for each house to confine itself to one class. All have a common sitting-room on the ground floor, with a fire at which the lodgers can cook their own victuals which in most cases has to be purchased at one of the small shops in which the neighbourhood abounds and where bread, cheese, dripping, bacon vegetables and indeed almost every kind of food, can be obtained in halfpenny portions. In a few instances these supplies can be obtained in the house itself. About the best sample of this kind of establishment extant will be found at St. George's chambers, St. George's-street, London-docks (vulgo, Ratcliff-highway), a thorough poor man's hotel where a comfortable bed with use of sitting-room, cooking apparatus and fire, and laundry accommodation, soap included, can be had for 4d. a night, all kinds of provisions being obtainable in the bar at proportionate rates. To any one interested in the condition of the London poor, this establishment is well worth a journey to the East-end to visit. On the other hand the following is a list of streets or places in the metropolis in which common lodging houses of the lower class are situate:




‘Old Rye-street, *Perkins-rents, St. Ann-street, *Orchard-street, Great Peter- street, end Dacre-st (Westminster)


*Turk’s-row (Chelsea)


Castle-street (St. Martin’s)


Bell-street and Little Grove-street (St. Marylebone)


Macklin-street, *Short’s-gardens, *Parker.street, *Queen-street, Dyott-street, *Kennedy-court (St. Giles)


Fulwood’s-rents and Dean-street (Holborn)


Market-street, Fitzroy-market (St. Pancras)


*Golden-lane, *New-court, *Nicholl’s-buildings (St. Luke’s)


Portpool-lane, *Holborn-buildings (Holborn)


*Flower and Dean-street and neighbourhood, Dorset-street, and Paternoster row (Christchurch)


Nicolls-row (Bethnal Green)


Cable-street (St. George East)


St. Ann-street and West India-road (Limehouse) 


Broadwall, Great Charlotte-street   (Christchurch)


Hooper-street, Tower-street Princes-street (Lambeth)



The Mint, Tabard-street, Orange-street, *Union-street (Southwark)


*Hill-lane, New King-street, Watergate-street (Deptford)


*Lower East-street (East Greenwich)


Canon-row, Rope-yard-rails, and the lower end of High-street (Woolwich)         


Brewhouse-lane (Hampstead)


Brook-green-place (Hammersmith)


Peel-street, Notting-hill (Kensington)


Garratt-lane (Wandsworth)


Wandsworth-road, Vauxhall (Lambeth)


Bangor-street, Crescent-street, St. Clement’s-road, and Walmer-road (Kensington)


Queen’s-road, Holloway (Islington)

Concerts,—Years ago it was a favourite byword with foreigners that England was not a musical country. Without staying to inquire into the accuracy of the original statement, we may take it now as an accepted fact that in few other countries does music enter more universally into the lives of the people, or receive more liberal acknowledgment. Far earlier than the commencement of the present century no form of amusement was snore in favour than concerts, and now London boasts permanently established series of musical performances — sufficient to satisfy the most eager and insatiable amateur. The conversion of the Hanover-square Rooms, some few years back, has removed the centre of attraction from a locality so long associated with the progress of the art to the newer and more commodious St. James's Hall, in the Regent-street Quadrant. Willis's Rooms, once so fashionable, have fallen into disuse for regular concert purposes, and the proprietors of Exeter Hall will not permit representations of other than sacred works— though it is on record that Verdi's opera, La Traviata, was produced in "recital" form at Exeter Hall. Here the old-established Sacred Harmonic Society have their headquarters, and bold their oratorio performances. In these two buildings the interest of London con- certs may be said to be maintained, though the important part taken by the Crystal Palace in musical affairs must not be forgotten. The oldest musical society in London is the Philharmonic, which has seen sixty-six seasons; the performances are given on a complete scale, and consist of orchestral and other instrumental compositions, relieved by vocal excerpts. The maintenance of classical art is the avowed object of the Philharmonic Society, though the most noticeable feature in the concerts given under their direction is the deliberate neglect shown to English music—a fact which, seeing that the directors are all Englishmen born or naturalised, is hard of explanation. Held at St. James's Hall, the annual series of concerts usually consists of eight, which commence early in the year, and end about the period when the London season is in its height. Our musical institution next in order in respect of longevity is the Sacred Harmonic Society, now in its forty-sixth year. The oratorios are given by a band and choir of 700, and usually take place on Friday evenings, commencing at 7.30. -The season comprises about ten concerts, and extends over the winter months. Of younger birth, but of no less pretension, are the Popular Concerts, held at St. James's Hall on Saturday afternoons and Monday evenings during the winter season. These justly celebrated entertainments of chamber classical music have reached their twenty-first year, and the manner in which the quartetts, trios, &c., are rendered by the first living artists, afford a theme for eulogistic comment throughout the world of art. The concerts were instituted by Mr. S. Arthur Chappell, who continues to hold the direction. The New Philharmonic Concerts were founded some five-and-twenty years ago by Dr. H. Wylde, in imitation of the Old Philharmonic Concerts. The season consists of about half-a-dozen concerts, held at St. James's Hall on Saturday afternoons, during the London season. Amongst other entertainments which have stood the test of years, we may cite Mr. John Boosey's London Ballad Concerts. Their locale is St. James's Hall, and they are held on successive Wednesday evenings during the autumn and spring months. For four-and-twenty years Mr. Henry Leslie has given subscription concerts, with the aid of the choir which owns him for its founder. The singing of this choir, in respect of delicacy and refinement, has long been universally acknowledged, and at the Paris Exhibition of last year they carried off the prize offered for competition. Mr. Leslie confines his season to a few performances, given on those Thursday evenings when a "date" can be obtained at St. James's Hall. The Crystal Palace has played so important a part for many years in music that its claims to be classed to rank amidst London musical attractions cannot be ignored. The Saturday winter classical concerts have done more to foster the appreciation of high art in all its branches than any similar institution in the same space of time. Mr. August Manns, the conductor, has shown true eclecticism in the works produced at Sydenham, and not one of the least interesting features of the entertainments has been the analytical notes supplied to the programmes by [G.] There is a Choral Society in connection with the Albert Hall which gives occasional signs of its existence; but occurrences associated with the ill-fated building are out of much general importance. Nor do benefit concerts claim the attention of the average visitor, who can get better return for his money elsewhere. The rooms where such performances are given include the Langham Hall, the Royal Academy of Music, the "Horns" Kennington, the "Eyre Arms," &c.

Congregational Places of Worship—The following information has been kindly furnished by the respective ministers, the "terms of membership" being given in their own words:
BRITANNIA-ROW CONGREGATiONAL CHURCH, Essex-road, Islington.—Terms of membership: "Profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and an avowed determination to strive after holiness of life in humble dependence on the gracious help of the Holy Spirit." All seats free.
BRUCE-ROAD CHAPEL, Bromley-by-Bow, E.— Terms of membership: "Confession of faith in the evangelical doctrines of Christianity." All seats free.
CHELSEA CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Markham-square, Chelsea— Terms of membership: "All are eligible who give credible evidence of conversion to God." Pew subscriptions are devoted to the support of the minister. The usual branches: Evangelistic Services in a Hall near, Sunday-schools, Home Mission Work, Visitation Society, Dorcas Society, Clothing Society, Band of Hope, &c.
CITY TEMPLE (THE), Holborn Viaduct— Terms of membership: "Profession of Christian faith. No formal creed, but evangelical." Seat rents from 7s. 6d. a quarter downward. Seats upwards of 2,000. Dr. Parker preaches not only on Sundays at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m., but at 12 midday every Thursday.
ECCLESTON-SQUARE, Belgrave-road, S.W. — Terms of membership: "The only qualification for Church membership is true piety. Persons desirous of becoming mem- bers must have an interview with the minister." Seat rents vary in amount from as. 6d. to 7s. per quarter. Application can be made after any of the services. Accommodation for over 1,200. Erected in the year 1848. Services on Sunday at 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m., and Wednesday at 7.30 p.m.
FETTER-LANE CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, Fetter-lane, E.C. Terms of membership: "Faith in the atoning work of Christ, God's Son." Seat rents purely voluntary. Preaching services: Sunday at 11 am. and 6.30 p.m.; Wednesday, 8 p.m. Prayer-meeting Monday, at 7 p.m.; Saturday at 8 p.m.
KENTISH-TOWH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Kelly - Street, Kentish Town.— Terms of membership:' A credible profession of Christian discipleship." Seat rents, charges not stated, applied to minister's salary.
KINGSLAND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH High-street, Kingsland, N. Terms of membership: "Acceptance of the great truths of the Gospel, ordinarily denominated orthodox, and an avowal of a desire to live as becometh the Gospel of Christ." Seat rents from 7s. 6d. to 1s. a quarter per sitting for one person. Has a large Sabbath-school, a Ragged-school, a middle-class Day-school, and missionary and benevolent institutions embracing home and foreign objects.
LANCASTER-ROAD CHAPEL, Notting-hill, London, W.— Terms of membership: "Profession of faith in Christ, and a life becoming the gospel." Supported by free-will offerings.
LATIMER CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, Bridge-street, Mile End road, E.— Terms of membership: "Profession of faith in Christ Seat rents from 5s. per quarts Supported by voluntary contribution of members, and also by considerable ancient endowments. MABERLY CHAPEL, Balls-pond-road Islington.— Terms of membership:" Evangelical faith, that is to say, believe in Christ Redeemer and Exemplar, without respect to human creeds. Seat rents voluntary. Service Sunday, 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m Thursday at 7.30. p.m
MACCLESFIELD-ST. MISSION CHAPEL, Newington Hall villas, Stoke Newington.— Terms of membership: "According to the order of congregational Churches." Seats free. Sunday service at 6.30 p.m.; Thursday, prayer meeting at 8 p.m.
NEW COLLEGE CHAPEL, Avenue-road, St. John's Wood, N.W. Terms of membership:: "Faith -in the Lord Jesus Christ." Seat Rents (no information).
NEW TABERNACLE, Old-street, E.C. — Terms of membership: "A simple confession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, the conduct of the member corresponding with his profession." Seat rents 4s.6d., 3s.6d 2s 6d 2s and 1s, There is a Sunday-school and various other religious institutions connected with the Church. Chapel seats 1,000. The property is freehold.
OFFORD-ROAD CHAPEL, Offord-road, Barnsbury, N.—Seat rents from 6s. to 3s per quarter. In connexion Sunday -schools and Mission-hall.
PARK CHAPEL, Arlington-Road, Camden Town— Terms of membership: "Admission by the Church on personal profession of faith." Seat rents, with slight deductions for taxes, &c., form the minister's salary (charges per sitting not stated). Number of sittings 1,500 number of communicants 6oo. Number in Sunday schools 850; number in Day schools 700.
QUEEN-STREET INDEPENDENT, Ratcliff, E..— Terms of membership: "By vote of the Church and transference." All seats free, weekly offerings. Founded in 1662.
ROBERT-STREET CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL, Robert-street, Grosvenor-square, W.— Terms of membership: "Acceptance of and belief in evangelical truth, as contained in Holy Scripture." Seat rents from 10s. to £1 1s. per annum; also supported by voluntary offerings. The church was founded in 1814; it was re-seated and generally restored in 1878.
ST. JOHN'S WOOD CHURCH, St John's Wood-ter. N.W.— Terms of membership: "Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as a personal Saviour, Teacher High Priest, and Lord; and a life in character and conduct consistent with the confession of such a faith." Each seat- holder fixes his own subscription; and support is obtained through weekly offerings, pew subscriptions, and, occasional collections. The above church has existed about forty years, and was the first (Nonconformist) formed in the neighbourhood.
ST. LEONARD'S-STREET CHAPEL, St. Leonard's-street, Upper Tachbrook-street, Pimlico, S.W.— Terms of membership: "Confession of faith in our Lord Jesus Christ." All seats are free and unappropriated, expenses being met by voluntary offerings. This Christian society, about forty years ago, first met, and have ever since continued to do so. Present chapel built twenty-five years. Seats about 350 persons. A lay pastorate unpaid, elected annually. Sabbath-school and other agencies at work for the good of the neighbourhood.
ST. PAUL'S CHAPEL, Hawley-road, Kentish Town— Terms of membership: "Belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and the Saviour of the world1 and a life in accordance with His teaching." All seats free.
SION CHAPEL, Whitechapel road, E.—Seat rents, no fixed charge; amount voluntary. Liturgical service on Sunday mornings.
STEPNEY MEETING- HOUSE, Spring-garden-place, Stepney- The Church meeting in the above was formed in 1644, under the presidency of Henry Burton, of "pillory" fame. Its first minister was William Greenhill, to whom Parliament entrusted the spiritual care of the orphans of Charles I.
SYDNEY-STREET CHAPEL, Sydney-street, Green-street, Bethnal green, E.—Seat rents not stated
TOLMERS-SQUARE CHAPEL, Hampstead-road, N.W. — Terms of membership: "As usual with the denomination with which the Church is associated." No rent charged for seats, but allotted on application, and each holder left contribute to the pastor's support according to ability. The church holds about 1,200; has 11 deacons, upwards of 60 Sunday-school teachers and 653 scholars on the books; upwards of 400 members with Band of Hope; Christian instruction society; Dorcas, Jews, sick, visiting, and temperance societies; mothers' meeting; mutual improvement society ; lectures, entertainments, and penny bank branch of City Missionary; Lo don Missionary.
TRINITY CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Hanbury-street, Mile End New Town.— Terms of membership:: "Persons are admitted by the members of the Church into their fellowship upon profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, as the only Saviour of sinners; and the living, so far as is known to the members, lives consistent with the requirements of the Sacred Scriptures."
UNION CHAPEL, Compton-terrace, Upper-street, Islington.— Terms of membership: "The applicant for membership is received by the existing members of the Church on any satisfactory evidence of Christian character and life; no other conditions of membership are imposed; but it is an honourable understanding that whoever becomes a member of the Church accepts its Constitution and order." Seat rents from is. 6d. to 8s. per quarter; but all unoccupied seats are free, a few minutes after the commencement of the service. The present building, opened December 5, 1877, is erected on the site of the chapel which was opened in 1806. It is supported by voluntary contributions, there being no endowment The congregation, numbering usually about 1,500, support two mission stations—one in Shoreditch, the other in Morton-road, Islington. In the Sunday and Ragged schools connected with the Church are about 2,500 children.
UNION CHAPEL Parish street, Horselydown, S.E. — Terms of membership: "The usual faith and order of Congregational Churches." Seat rents (amount not stated) constitute the pastors stipend. Will accommodate 800; is freehold and clear of debt; has a good Sunday-school (600).
WESTMINSTER CHAPEL, James-street, Buckingham-gate, S.W... Seat rents not stated. The chapel seats 2,500 persons.
WHITEPIELD TABERNACLE, Tabernacle-row, City-road, E.C.— Terms of membership: "A profession of faith in, love for, and obedience to our Lord Jesus Christ, sustained by a consistent and holy life." Seat rents vary according to the position of the pew and the circumstances of the person. All are expected to contribute something to the support of the means grace who regularly attend them but the poorest are welcome even when they can contribute nothing.

Conservative Club, St. James's-street – To carry out Conservative principles. Every candidate must be a Conservative. Entrance fee £10 10s. Towards the library fund, the first year only, £2 2s. Candidates solicitors can only be elected on a vacancy of 5 per cent. on 1,200 members.

Cookery and Cooking Schools —The National School of Cookery, Exhibition-road, South Kensington, commenced its work in the year 1873 under the title of the Popular School of Cookery, and was located in the building of the International Exhibition of that year. At the close of the International Exhibition the commissioners granted to the executive committee of the National School of Cookery the temporary use, free of rent, of that portion of the building already occupied by it, together with some more space for an additional kitchen and offices. Up to the present time it has not been found possible for the school to provide its own premises, and therefore the use of the exhibition building is continued to it. Lectures and demonstrations are now given daily in this school by students going through a course of training as teachers. Cooks and others are instructed in all branches of cookery, and lessons can be had singly or in a course. The public are admitted to see the school at work every afternoon, except Saturday, between three and four o'clock. The Crystal Palace classes for cookery and domestic economy were commenced in the Ladies' Division of the School of Art, Science, and Literature in the year 1875. On the removal of the school to its present position in the tropical department of the palace, Miss Mary Hooper was entrusted with the formation of a new series of classes for instruction in cookery and every branch of domestic economy. These classes have been continued to the present time The instruction is given by practical illustrations, and is designed for ladies, from a lady's point of view, and not for the training of servants. It includes all that is necessary to make home comfortable and attractive, and a lady accomplished ruler of her own house. At each cookery lesson, two or more dishes are prepared which are tasted by the students. At this school single lessons are not given, and the number of students received for each course is limited.

Co-operative Stores.—A good deal of misunderstanding exists on the subject of what are called "Co-operative Stores." The co-operative principle is in itself plain enough, consisting simply in the clubbing together of a number of retail buyers for the purpose of procuring their joint requirements at wholesale prices: A purely co-operative association is one exclusively distributive, and distributive only among its own members to whom it re-issues the goods it has purchased with their money at just so much advance upon the price it has paid for them as shall cover the actual cost of the double transaction. Practically, however, it soon becomes obvious that this exact balance is not to be obtained, and that in order to ensure against loss it is necessary to have at least a "margin" of profit. To carry out the co-operative principle in its integrity, the accumulations accruing from time to time out of this margin should be distributed among the purchasers pro rata on the amount of their purchases. So much for theory. Practically the co-operative business of London is carried on upon a rather different principle. Even with those which most nearly approach the ideal, a considerable deviation has been made in the admission of a class of member called a ticket. holder, who, while paying a small fee—2s. 6d. or 5s. per annum—for permission to make his purchases at the stores, is entirely excluded in the profits, whilst the majority of the associations divide their accumulations simply on the basis of so much per share, without any reference to the amount laid out by the shareholder. Some so-called cooperative associations have neither shareholders nor ticket-holders— or at all events, do not limit their dealing to them—and are, an point of fact, not co-operative societies at all, but just large ready-money establishments, which, by the diminished expenses and rapid turnover of the "store" system, are enabled to offer their goods at little more than wholesale price. The principal real co-operative association are the Civil Service Supply Association, the Civil Service Co-operative Society, the Army and Navy Co-operative Society, the Port of London Co- operative Society, the International Exhibition Co-operative Wine Society, the National Co-operative Supply Association, the London and Westminster Supply Association, the New Civil Ser vice, the Agricultutal and Horticultural Society, the Coal Co-operative Society, and the Ladies' Dress Association, particulars of each of which will be found under thei respective headings.

Copenhagen Fields.—This the great cattle market of London lies up the Caledonian- road, King's-cross. At a mile and a quarter from King's-cross Market-street is reached, and then turning to the left, in a hundred yards or so the visitor finds himself at the great gates of the cattle-market. The market is of immense size, but large as it is, it is insufficient to contain the animals sent up for the Christmas markets. In the centre is a clock tower, round which are the offices of the market clerk and other officials. On one side is the cattle-market, upon the other the sheep-pens. The calves are for the most part under roofs with open sides, and the pigs have also their own portion of the market. The number of cattle and sheep sold here weekly is prodigious, and the arrangements are excellent both as regards regularity, and, as far as possible, the comfort of the animals. Although upon some days of the week the number of beasts is much larger than at others, there are always a good many there, and a visitor pressed for time can therefore choose his own day. NEAREST Railway Stations, Barnsbury and Holloway; Omnibus Routes, Camden, Caledonian and Holloway roads.

Copyhold Enclosure and Tithe Commission, 3, St. James's-square, S.W.—Office hours 10 to 4, searches 10 to 3. There is a subdivision, "Survey Map Department." NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing-cross (S.E. & Dist.) and St. James's park; Omnibus Routes, Piccadilly and Regent-street; Cab Rank, South side of square.

Costa Rica, Republic of. —MINISTRY, none. CONSULATE. 4, Lime-street. NEAREST Railway Stations, Mansion House (Dist.), Cannon-street (SE.), and Fen- church-street; Omnibus Routes, Fenchurch-street, Gracechurch-street, and Leadenhall- street Cab Rank, Rood-lane.

Costumes, Artists'.—Most of the respectable theatrical costumiers provide correct costumes of almost every period; and in addition to these, Mr. Barthe, of 4, Limerston- street, Fulham road, gives special attention to this class of business.

County Club, 43 and 44, Albemarle-street. — Proprietary. General qualification. Entrance fee, £10 10s.; annual subscription, £6 6s.

Courts of Law,—(See LAW COURTS.)

Court Theatre, Sloane-square, Chelsea—This pretty little house, originally a dissenting chapel, was converted into a theatre, and after some years passed into the hands of Mr. Hare, by whom it has since been worked on the same plan as that which has distinguished the management of Mrs. Bancroft at the Prince of Wales's, and with similar success. Next to the Prince of Wales's, Folly, and the Royalty, it is the smallest house in London, but is very prettily and tastefully decorated. NEAREST Railway Station, Sloane-square; Omnibus Route, Sloane-street; Cab Rank, Sloane-square.

Covent Garden — No visitor to London should miss paying at least two visits to Covent-garden: one at early morning. Say at 6am.— the hour is an untimely one, but no one will regret the effort that the early rising involves—to see the vegetable market; the other, later on, to see the fruits and flowers. All night long on the great main roads the rumble of the heavy waggons seldom ceases, and before daylight the "market" is crowded. The very loading of these waggons is in itself a wonder, and the wall-like regularity with which cabbages, cauliflowers, turnips, are built up to a height of some 12ft. is nothing short of marvellous. Between 5 and 6 o'clock the light traps of the green- grocers of the metropolis rattle up, and all the streets around the market become thronged with their carts, while the costermongers come in in immense numbers. By 6o'clock the market is fairly open, and the din and bustle are surprising indeed. Gradually the large piles of vegetables melt away. If it be summer-time flowers as well as fruits are sold at the early markets. Then there are hundreds of women and girls among the crowd, pur- chasing bunches of roses, violets, and other flowers, and then sitting down on the steps of the church, or of the houses round the market, dividing the large bunches into smaller ones, or making those pretty button-hole bouquets in which our London flower-girls can now fairly hold their own in point of taste with those of France or Italy. Even in winter flower-girls find materials for their little bouquets; for, thanks to steam, violets are brought from the Scilly and Channel Isles, and even from the South of France, and there is always a certain supply of hothouse flowers; so that there are many flower-girls who ply their trade at all seasons of the year. After 8 o'clock the market becomes quiet. The great waggons have moved off; the debris of cabbage-leaves and other vegetable matter has been swept up, and Covent-garden assumes its everyday aspect. And a very pretty aspect it is. The avenue as at all times of the year a sight, the shops competing with each other in a display of flowers and fruit such as can scarcely, if at all, be rivalled in any capital of Europe. In winter the aspect of the fruit shops changes somewhat, but not so much as might have been expected, for steam and heat have made it possible for the rich to eat many fruits, which formerly were in season but a month or two, all the year round. On each side of the main avenue are enclosed squares, and here the wholesale fruit market is carried on. In winter there are thousands of boxes of oranges, hundreds of sacks of nuts, boxes of Hamburg grapes and of French winter pears, barrels of bright American apples. At ten o'clock the sale begins; auctioneers stand on boxes, and while the more ex- pensive fruits are purchased by the West-end fruiterers, the cheaper are briskly bid for by the costermonger. Listen to the prices at which the fruit sells, and you will wonder no longer at the marvellous bargains at which these itinerant vendors are able to retail their fruits, although, perhaps, you may be astonished when you remember the prices at which you have seen the contents of some of these boxes marked in fruiterers' shops. Outside the market there is almost always something to see. In winter a score of men are opening orange boxes and sorting their contents; in autumn dozens of women and girls are extracting walnuts from juicy green outside cases; in spring-time the side facing the church is occupied by dealers in spring and bedding flowers, and the pavement is aglow with colour of flower and leaf, and in the early summer hundreds of women and girls are busily occupied in shelling peas. Country visitors will go away from Covent Garden with the conviction that to see flowers and fruits in perfection it is necessary to come to London. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing-cross, S.E. & Dist.); Omnibus Routes Strand, St. Martin's-lane, and Holborn. Cab Ranks, Bedford-street and Catherine-street.

Covent Garden Theatre, Bow-street, Covent-garden.—one of the largest theatres in Europe, ranking next after San Carlo at Naples, the Scala at Milan, and the Pergola at Florence. The stage also, is on a very large scale, and fitted np with every convenience. It is intended primarily for Italian opera, but is now commonly used in the autumn for promenade concerts, and in the winter for pantomime, in which the spectacular element largely predominates. There are only two full tiers of boxes above the pit, which in some degree lessens the general effect, but which enables the boxes themselves to be constructed with much more headroom. When open for any other performance than Italian opera the greater portion of these two box tiers is converted into a lower and upper dress-circle, whilst the pit tier of boxes is thrown into the pit or promenade. During the Italian season full evening dress is de rigeur in every part of the theatre except the gallery and this rule is most stringently enforced. The main front is in Bow-street, where there is a covered entrance for carriages, and the façade of which is decorated with Flaxman's statues of Tragedy and Comedy rescued from the fire which destroyed the late building. Over the carriage-way is a large and handsome saloon, or foyer. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing-cross (S.E. & Dist.) and Temple; Omnibus Routes, Strand, St. Martin's-lane, and Holborn.

Crichton Club, 3, Adelphi-terrace. — Proprietary and non- political. An artistic, scientific, and literary dub1 one of the largest of its class, and in one of the best situations in London. Entrance fee, £3 3s.; annual subscription, £3 3s.

Cricket —The famous grounds of "Lord's," and "The Oval" with with the more recently established "Prince's "are the principal cricket of grounds of London. "Lord's" is the head-quarters of the Marylebone Club, and there some of the "sensational" cricket of the year is played. Oxford and Cambridge, and Eton and Harrow, especially the latter, attract society to an almost ridiculous extent, and are among the sights of London. The cricket lover will, however, find many matches more to his taste than these, and as hardly a week goes by in the season from May to September without a first-class match, will have no difficulty in finding a suitable occasion for a visit to the celebrated old place. "Lord's" is notoriously a difficult ground, but the Marylebone Club has recently expended a great deal of money in draining and relaying, and a great improvement is observable. A tavern is attached to the ground, and, besides racket and tennis courts, there are billiard-rooms and a variety of grand stands and pavilions. The Marylebone Club (entrance fee, £1; annual subscription, £3; election by committee) are the present proprietors of Lord's which is one situated in the St. John's Wood-road, NW. NEAREST Railway Station, St. John's Wood-road. Omnibus Routes Wellington-road and St. John's Wood-road. Cab fare from Charing-cross, 2s.; from the Bank of England, 2s. 6d. The Oval at Kennington, is the head-quarters of the Surrey County Cricket Club, and some of the very best matches of the season are played on the ground. A spacious pavilion, a tavern with billiards room and a large dining room, and racket-courts add to the attractions of the Oval. The ground itself is as nearly perfection as can be, and in seasonable weather a wicket can be selected as true as a billiard-table. NEAREST Railway Station, Vauxhall (L. & S.W.R); Omnibus Routes, Kennington-road, Clapham-road; Cab Rank, St. Mark's Church, Clapham-road. The cab fare from Charing-cross is 2s., and from the Bank of England 2s. 6d. The Surrey County Club (election by ballot by the members generally, ten to make a ballot, and two black balls to exclude) requires an entrance fee of one guinea; and a subscription of the same amount entitles a member to every privilege except that of practice from the Club bowlers, of whom there are eight. An annual subscription of £2, and an entrance fee of £1 entitles a member to every privilege the Club affords. Prince's Ground is situated in Hans-place, Belgrave-square, S.W. NEAREST Railway Station, Sloane-square. Omnibus Route, Sloane-street; Cab Rank, Pont-street. Cab fare from the Bank of England 2s.; from Charing-cross, 1s. 6d. Prince's is not so exclusively a cricket ground as Lord's and the Oval, polo, rink skating, and other amusements occupying the members of the club to a very considerable extent, but good matches. are not unfrequently played.

Criterion Theatre, Regent-circus, Piccadilly. Is built-entirely underground. It is really part of the Criterion Restaurant, with which it was intended to form one establishment. The rules of the Lord Chamberlain's Office, however, forbid any communication between two places of the kind, and the doors leading from one to the other have accordingly been stopped up. The-entrance halls, however, adjoin, so that it is still possible to get from one to the other without actually going out into the rain. The house is small, but handsome, commodious, and at least as welt ventilated as any other. There is nothing whatever to suggest to the visitor in the stalls that he is considerably below the level of the sewers, which, in point of fact, are about the height of the gallery One great advantage of this mode of construction is that the way out lies in every case upstairs, which not only modifies any rush, but greatly mitigates the danger of stumbling over the trailing dresses of the ladies. In case of an alarm of fire, this could hardly fail to prove a very serious advantage. For specialty, this theatre has of late addicted itself almost exclu- sively to translations of rattling pieces of the Palais Royal school, in which it has achieved considerable success. NEAREST Railway Stations, Charing-cross (S.E. & Dist.); Omnibus Routes, Piccadilly, Regent-st, and Waterloo-pl.

Croydon.—A favourite suburb with men of business, as affording plentiful means of communication with town, and especially with the City. It boasts of no fewer than five separate stations, known respectively as East, New, South, and West Croydon, and Addiscombe-rd, and is the meeting place of the Victoria and London-bridge branches of the Brighton Railway. It is also an assize town for Surrey, and has favourite race meet- ings. The situation, too is healthy, and though greatly built over is still within walking reach of the open country. Rents on the whole moderate. East Croydon, from London- bridge (17 min.) or Victoria (23 min.), 1st, 2/-, 3/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/6; 3rd, -/10, 1/6; New Croydon, from London-bridge (35 min) or Victoria (46 min.); South Croydon, from London-bridge (40 min.) or Victoria (44 min.); West Croydon, from London-bridge (35 min.) or Victoria (33 min.); Addiscombe-road, from Charing-cross (49 min.), London- bridge, S.E.R. (33 min.), Cannon-street (37 min.) 1st, 1/6, 2/6; 2nd, 1/2, 1/9; 3rd -/10, 1/3. Crystal Palace, Sydenham. —About seven miles from London. Erected at a cost of nearly £1,500,000. The Palace and Grounds, which cover about 200 acres, were opened in 1854. Concerts, dramatic entertainments, flower-shows, shows of different kinds of live-stock, &c, are held annually, the charge for admission being usually one shilling, or by guinea season ticket. Fireworks during the summer season. The Aquarium is well stocked with choice specimens of fish. The Grounds are tastefully laid out with flowers, cascades and fountains. Reached by rail from London-bridge, Victoria, and Kensington (L.B. & S.C.R.), also from Moorgate-street Holborn, Ludgate-hill, and Victoria (L.C. & D.R.). Fares from Victoria, 1st, 1/3, 2/-. Kings-cross to High Level, 1st, 1/6, 2/-; 2nd, 1/-, 1/6; 3rd, -/9, 1/- Kensington 1st, 1/9, 2/6, 2nd, 1/4, 2/-; 3rd, -/10, 1/6. Return tickets, including admission, on 1/- days, 3/-, 2/3, 1/9.

Customs.—The Custom House is in Lower Thames-street, and the departments are: the Secretary's, the Surveyor-General's, the Law Officers', the Comptroller of Accounts', the Statistical, and the Long Room. The out-door department comprises surveyors, assistant- surveyors, examining officers, gaugers (with inspectors and assistant-inspectors). On arriving from the Continent by train, unregistered luggage is examined at the port of debarkation; registered luggage at the terminal station of the line in London. By boat, the examination takes place on board on the way up from Gravesend, unless the passenger lands at Gravesend, when his luggage is searched there. The only things that need be troubled about are cigars and tobacco (1 lb. allowed), and spirits, including Eau de Cologne. The search is not, as a rule, very severe, but it sometimes is so, and the very small saving is decidedly not worth the risk.