Victorian London - Directories - Dickens's Dictionary of London, by Charles Dickens, Jr., 1879 - "BIC-BUS"

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Bicycling, the youngest of the athletic sports which occupy so much of the time and thoughts of junior London, has assumed, in a very few years, extraordinary proportions, and that notwithstanding the ridicule which has been so lavishly showered upon its disciples, and the actual persecution which they have in some quarters undergone. A great city is, perhaps, not the most favour able arena for the bicyclist, but if he be careful and considerate in the streets, and does not put on the pace until he gets to the open country roads, there is no good reason why he should not be left to enjoy himself in peace. The annual muster of clubs at Hampton Court has been for some years a very successful and attractive show, marred only by the over.eagerness of the public, who are much too apt to spoil such affairs, and their own pleasure as well, by too much crowding and too little regard for the preservation of order. The list of London clubs is something amazing seeing that the oldest— the Pickwick—only dates from 1870. The following are the names and headquarters of those numbering forty members and upwards: Amateur H. N. Custance, Hon.Sec., 34, Tregunter-road. Clapham, Alexandra Hotel. Guy’s Hospital, The Plough, Clapham. Kingston,Assize Courts. London, 44 Pall Mall. Lombard, 7, St. St. Mildred’s-court, E.C. Middlesex, 8 Kensington - square. Pickwick,  Albion Hotel, Albion-road, Stoke Newington. Stanley, Athenaeum, Camden Town. Star, Downs Hotel, Clapton. Surrey, The Oval, Kennington. Temple, H. Ponitt, Hon. Sec., 18, The Crescent, -Victoria-pk. Wanderers, Windmill, Clapham - common. West Kent, -City Terminus Hotel. The want of some sort of organisation for keeping the clubs together, and for the regulation of bicycling matters generally, led to the formation, in 1878 of the Bicycle Union. The objects of the association, among others are declared to be “To secure a fair and equitable administration of Justice —as regards the right of bicyclists  to the public roads. To watch -the course of any legislative proposals in Parliament or elsewhere affecting the interests of the bicycling public, and to make such representations on the subject as the occasion may demand.” An excellent set of recommendations to riders has been issued by the Council of the Union, and it is made abundantly clear from the remarks by which they are prefaced (and which are quoted below) that, if the principles of the Union are carried out, there will be very little further trouble between the bicyclists and the public: “In placing before the general body of bicyclists the accompanying recommendations in reference to road riding, which have been made as concise as possible, the Council of the Union would specially urge on every individual rider the desirability of extending to all that courtesy which be would have shown to himself. The present prejudice against bicycling has been partly caused (and cannot but be fostered and increased) by a disregard to the feelings of other passengers on the road; and although the right of the bicyclist to the free use of the public highway should be at all times maintained, any needless altercation should be studiously avoided.” Bicyclists who are addicted to furious riding should carefully consider the case of Taylor v. Goodwin (reported in the Times of March 26, 1879), where Mr. Justice Mellor and Mr. Justice Lush, sitting in banco in the Queen’s Bench Division, held that bicyclists are liable to the pains and penalties imposed by the “Furious Driving” Act, 5 & 6 William IV, cap. 50 sec. 78, although at the time of the passing of the Act bicycles were not in existence. The principal races amongst London bicyclists take place at Lillie-bridge, Stamford-bridge, and the Alexandra and Crystal Palaces. Every kind of information of value to bicyclists will be found in the Bicycle Annual, published at the office of the Bicycling Times, East Temple-chambers, White-friars-street. The Bicycling News is published at 13, York-street, Covent-garden.  

Billiards.—Amateurs of this game should remember that “billiard sharps,” as well as billiard tables, abound in every quarter of London. As these gentry get their living by infesting public tables, the unskilled amateur should avoid playing or betting with strangers, whose “form” is apt to improve at critical moments in the most unlooked-for fashion. “Championship” and other important matches are usually played at St. James's Hall, and the recently introduced “American Tournaments” have been played both there and at the Westminster Aquarium. Tables are to be found in most of the chief thoroughfares, and all hotels and the larger public-houses possess at least one. The usual charges are 1s. an hour for daylight play or 1s. 6d. by gaslight. If by the game, 6d. for 50 up.

Billingsgate so called, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, after Belin King of the Britons, who built the first water-gate here in 400 B.C., styled by Fuller “the Esculine gate of London,” and has been for the last five centuries the great fish-market of the metropolis. It is built of red brick, with stone dressings and a campanile, and stands on the left bank of the river, a little below London-bridge. The market opens at 5 a.m. throughout the year, the fish being sold by tale, except in the case of salmon, which is sold by weight, and shellfish, which are sold by measure. It is one of the curious sights of London, but it is not well to go very elaborately dressed, or with too dainty ears. It is only fair, however, to say that the good old days of the “fish-fag “ are now over, and nothing worse in the way of “Billingsgate” will be heard than at any other place where rough work is being done in a hurry. Nevertheless, it requires coolness and presence of mind to pay a visit to Billingsgate with safety. Thames-street is narrow, crowded, and not over savoury. The pavements are narrow, and men are hurrying across them with boxes of oranges, for this is the centre of the Levant and Spanish fruit trade; waggons from the docks block the street; costermongers’ carts dodge in and out as best they may; everyone is intent upon business, and a man who comes on pleasure must shift for himself. Billingsgate is smelt before it is seen: there is a whiff of fresh fish and of red herrings, a tarry seaside smell which is not altogether disagreeable. Perhaps upon first visiting Bilhingsgate the feeling is one of disappointment: the show of fish is not great, for there is but little retail trade, but a little examination shows how immense is the trade carried on. At the river side are taut steamers which have just come in from the North Sea; piled up in thousands are boxes with fish from Yarmouth and Lowestoft and the eastern fishing places, and from the southern ports. There are hundreds of baskets and hampers of sprats, of herrings, of mackerel, boxes of soles and of flat fish, tons of cod, thousands of lordly turbot, and any quantity of whiting, plaice, and mullet. Besides all these there are quantities of shrimps, and, if it be the season, baskets upon basket of delicate smelt and whitebait. The river fish are represented only by salmon, and perhaps a few trout, but what a magnificent representation it is! Hundreds, nay thousands, of splendid fish which have come in ice, from Scotland principally, but some from Wales, some from Galway and the Irish rivers, some even from Norway. It is in the early morning or in the evening that Billingsgate is seen at its fullest, and perhaps the scene at night is the most characteristic. The market is well lighted, is thronged by a crowd of fishmongers and costermongers, and the din of the shouting salesmen is bewildering. If the weather has been stormy, the supply poor, the fish consequently dear, the costermonger element will soon thin out. There is no chance at such a time for them to buy fish at such a price as will enable them to sell to the working classes, and accordingly they all turn their attention to oranges, or if these are out of season, will go off for the night, and start for Covent-garden at daybreak to get a load of vegetables—perhaps even go down to a market-garden miles out, and buy the barrow-load there. Of all the population of London there are none who work longer hours for a living than do these itinerant vendors; their labour commencing at daybreak, and extending until eleven or twelve at night. NEAREST Railway Stats. ,Mansion House (Dist.), Cannon-st (S.E.), and Fenchurch. street; Omnibus Routes, Cannon-street, King William-street, Gracechurch-street, Fenchurch. street, and London-bridge; Cab Rank, Fish-street-hill  

Bill-posting —The ordinary charge for hoardings is from a penny to twopence per sheet of “double crown” or “ double demy,” but very great judgment is required both in selecting stations and composing the bill itself. One chief point to bear in mind is to have as little in your bill as possible. Another is to have something novel and striking to the eye. All the best stations are in private hands, and must be treated for in detail. Be careful in all cases to have a written agreement. “Fly posting” – ie. Bills placed broadcast on unprotected stations – may be done very cheaply.

Births – (See REGISTERS)  

Black Eye -- Should any reader of the DICTIONARY be afflicted with an accidental black and find himself at the same obliged to go into society, he may be recommended to apply to Mr. George Paul, 47, James-Street, who describes himself as an “artist in black eye,” and the resources of whose art are supposed to be equal to concealing the most aggravated case at a cost of 2s 6d., and 5s. if the patient has to be visited at home. Mr,Clarkson, 45, Wellington-street, the well-known theatrical perruquier, may also be relied upon for assistance under similar circumstances, and at about the same charges.  

Blackfriars Bridge is one of the handsomest in London, and would have a still better effect were not its appearance so seriously marred by the proximity of its neighbour, the Alexandra (London Chatham and Dover Railway) bridge. It was built in 1864-9 by Mr. William Cubitt from the designs of Mr. Page, architect also of Westminster-bridge, and though showing a tendency towards the same defects in design which occur in that structure, is beyond all question an immense advance upon it. It crosses the river in five spans, the centre span being 185 ft. The piers are of granite, surmounted by recesses resting on short pillars of polished red Aberdeen granite, and with ornamental stone parapets. The parapet of the bridge itself is very low, which, with the extreme shortness of the ornamental pillars at the pier ends, gives the whole structure rather a dwarfed and stunted look; but the general outline is bold and the ensemble rich, if perhaps a trifle gaudy, especially when the gilding, of which there is an unusual proportion, has been freshly renewed.  

Blackheath.— Now practically part of London. A fine open space, lying high and gravelly soil, and considered one of the healthiest spots in the outskirts, close to Greenwich-Park and river. Rents about average or a little over. From Charing.cross (SE., 33 min.), 1st, 1/4, 2/2 ; 2nd, 1/-, 1/8; 3rd, -/6 .

Blackwall — Here are the East India-docks, where the principal sailing ships trading from the port of London load and discharge. The visitor may in these docks inspect long tiers of China tea-clippers—now almost run off the line by fast steamers—and the fine passenger ships trading to the Australasian ports. Adjoining the docks is the spacious ship-building yard of Messrs. Green, and farther down the river is the Trinity House head-quarters, beyond which again are the Victoria-docks. The Brunswick Hotel, once famous for fish-dinners, has recently been transformed into an emigration office. There is a railway-station on the steamboat-pier. Fares from Fenchurch-street (17 min.), 1st, -/6, ./10; 2nd -/4, -/6; trains running each way every 15 minutes. Steamers from Westminster, Charing-cross, Temple, and London-bridge every half-hour. Fares: aft, -/6; forward, -/4. Omnibus from Bank of England.  

Bloomsbury is the district bounded on the south by New Oxford Street, on the west by Tottenham.Court Road, on the north by the Euston-Road, and on the east by Gray’s-inn. It was at one time a fashionable quarter of the town, and contains several good squares, among them Bedford, Russell, Brunswick and Tavistock Squares. The houses in the two former of these are large, roomy, and substantially built; whilst both for houses and garden Russell-square is incomparably the finest in London. Rents, very moderate; but the Bedford Estate leases are rather stringent. To strangers its chief interest is that in Russell-street, Bloomsbury, stands the British Museum. Although no longer a fashionable, it is still an eminently respectable district of London, and as it is not traversed by any main thoroughfares, its streets and squares, with the exception of some few which are still paved with the old heavy stones, are remarkably quiet, and free from noise and bustle. NEAREST Railway Station, Gower.street; Omnibus Routes, Marylebone-road. Tottenham.Court Road, Gray’s-inn-road, and Oxford-street.  

Blue Coat School —(See CHRIST’S HOSPITAL.)  

Board of Green Cloth. Buckingham Palace, is a branch of the Lord Steward’s Department. Hours 11 to 4. NEAREST Railway Station, Victoria Omnibus Routes, Victoria-street and Grosvenor-place; Cab Rank, James-street.  

Bohemia.—It may be taken as an axiom, that if the English adapter from the French is good at anything, it is in losing whatever of subtlety or chic there may be in the original work. An excellent example of this may be found in the way in which journalists and magazine writers innumerable have carefully missed the point of Henri Murger’s admirable “Vie de Bohème,” a book which, like Burton’s “Anatomy”, or the works of Rochefoucauld, is incessantly referred to, and, it would seem, but seldom read. It was for a long time the favourite theory among London writers on this subject, that to be a true Bohemian it was necessary to be drunken, disorderly, dirty, and dissipated. A chronic atrophy of the purse was another symptom of the disease, while a free indulgence in borrowing and promising, without their correlatives, paying and performing, were held to be indispensable to the character of the true Bohemian. As a matter of fact, the animal here described is not indigenous to Bohemia. He belongs rather to the class bümmler of Germany, and the “loafer” of New York, and has nothing in common with the careless, reckless, but joyous inhabitant of M. de Murger’s Utopia. In process of time the London writer’s type of Bohemian changed. Cleanliness, order, a respect for the outward observances of society, combined with an absolute disregard of every moral law and obligation, has been held up in many recent novels as the qualifications of a genuine Bohemian. Both these monsters, who have usually been described as belonging to the literary, artistic, or dramatic professions, arc far from representing the truth. Bohemianisfli may be said to be confined to no district, to no pro. fession, and to no class. The hallmark of your true Bohemian is that he declines to own himself a subject of Mrs. Grundy. He has emancipated himself from conventionalities and shams, and does his own work in his own way; neither seeking nor wishing, on the one hand, to interfere with his fellow creatures who may hold different views, nor allowing, on the other, any undue interference with his own actions. In fact, it may boldly be said that tolerance and charity are among the leading characteristics of Bohemia—of the genuine and not of the sham country, be it understood. The sham Bohemia is peopled by nothing but Gorgon and Chimaera dire, and by hordes of other monsters who have never yet existed in fact, and never will.  

Bolivia. CONSULATE, 11 Billiter-square. NEAREST Railway Stations, Bishopsgate and Cannon -street (S. E.); Omnibus Routes, Bishopsgate-street and Leadenhall - street; Cab Rank,Leadenhall-street.  

Bond Street is, next only to Regent-street, the main artery between the great thoroughfares of Oxford-street and Piccadilly. It was once, par excellence, the fashionable street of London. Here the “beaux” of one period and the “bucks” of another strolled up and down, criticising the exterior of others, and showing off their own. In those days a man was made or marred by the fold of his neck-cloth or the set of his Coat, and men took more pains then, and spent as much thought on their attire as did women. In this respect Bond-street is entirely changed; it is no longer a lounge, and those who would see the “lounger” of the present day must look for him in the “Row.’ Except, indeed, in Pall Mall, there is too much traffic and bustle for the languid walk which appears to be one of the marked characteristics of “beaux” of all times and of all nations; and the ghost of Brummel would sigh over a Bond-street occupied by a busy throng of foot-passengers, and invaded by omnibuses. As a fashionable Street it has been eclipsed by Regent-street, but in point of high-class shops it can still hold its own against its younger rival, and It is strong in exhibitions and art galleries. In this respect a great addition has been made by the erection by Sir Coutts Lindsay of the Grosvenor Gallery, a handsome building on the western side of the street. On the same side of the Street are the Belgian and Danish Galleries, while on the eastern side is the Dore Gallery, devoted solely to the pictures of the great French artist. NEAREST Railway Stations, St. James’s-park and Portland-road; Omnibus Routes, Oxford-street, Piccadilly, Park-lane, Bond-street, and Regent-street; Cab Ranks, Woodstock-street and St. James’s Street.  

Boodle’s Club, 28, St. James’s. street.—Repeated applications have failed to elicit any reply from the secretary.

Books of Reference.— The first and most universally useful of London hooks of reference is, of course, Messrs. Kelly’s “Post Office Directory.” In this gigantic annual, extending this year to 2,500 pages, will be found every kind of information as to the local habitation of Londoners of every class. Collingridge’s “City Directory” does the same service with regard to the more limited area with which it deals, giving at the same time a large amount of very interesting information with regard to other matters affecting the City and its Corporation. Webster’s “Royal Red Book “deals in similar fashion as does also the “Court Guide,” with the West-end of the town, and is a much more manageable volume in point of size; whilst Dean & Sons’ “Export Merchant Shippers of London, &c.,” gives in comparatively small compass a vast amount of information as to the commercial operations of the great metropolitan market. As a companion to the picture galleries of London nothing better could be desired than Miss Thompson’s compact little “Handbook to the Picture Galleries of Europe “(Macmillan & Co.), which gives catalogues of all the principal galleries, with critical notices both of paintings and masters. To those more particularly interested in the ecclesiological aspect of London may be recommended Mackeson’s “Guide to the London Churches and Chapels ;“ the Rev. J. H. Sperling’s” Church Walks in Middlesex’ (Masters); the very compact little “Tourist’s Church Guide” issued by the English Church Union, with detailed information as to every church where Holy Communion is celebrated weekly; and the (Roman) “Catholic Directory, Ecclesiastical Register, and Almanac” (Burns and Oates). Mitchell’s Newspaper Directory” gives a very comprehensive list of the newspapers daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, and others—not only of London, but of the entire kingdom, with particulars of their politics, circulation, &c., in the ispsissima verba of the several  proprietors. The same may be said an respect of the charities of the metropolis with regard to Mr. Herbert Fry’s admirable little work, the “Royal Guide to the London Charities,” wherein will be found at full length the nature and object of each institution dealt with, the names of its various officers, the mode in which application for assistance from it is to be made, the amount collected by it in the preceding year, and the purposes to which that amount has been applied. Of guide books proper we have the usual three—Murray, Black, and Baedeker—each in his own peculiar style doing for strangers in London the useful work he has so often done for Londoners elsewhere; whilst Messrs. Cook & Son provide their especial clientelle with a small paper-covered handbook of a very condensed and practical kind. Messrs. Nelson & Co., on the other hand, provide us with a number of little volumes of the descriptive and pictorial class, one devoted to lithographic illustrations of the principal places of interest at the West-end, with brief historical and descriptive paragraphs; another with effectively executed coloured illustrations of picturesque and interesting localities near London and so forth. Lieut-Col. Ivey’s “Club Directory” contains a good deal of information concerning, not only most of the London, but a large number of foreign and colonial clubs. Messrs. Taunt & Co. send us a capital little pocket guide to the Thames, containing inter alia a most useful table of distances measured (a) from Folly to Putney-bridge, (J) from Putney to Folly-bridge, and (c) from place to place along the route. Every place too has its concise but exhaustive paragraph with every information as to inns, fishing, fishermen, &c. and the book winds up with a short paper by the Editor on “camping out,” an experience which visitors to London may find for a time an agreeable change. “The Tourist’s Guide Round about London” (Edward Stanford, Charing Cross) deals generally with the historical, architectural, archaeological, and picturesque aspect of the environs within a circle of 12 miles. It does not, however, confine itself strictly within those limits, outlines of a few walking excursions being given to places such as Hatfield, Windsor, &c. The book is arranged, alphabetically, and divided into two sections; one dealing with the places within, the other with those beyond, the four mile circle. As might be anticipated, a prominent feature in the book is its map, which extends from Southall to Crayford, and from Potter’s Bar to Caterham Junction, and is one of the clearest we have ever seen, so clear that it might be used even for the streets of the town itself. Messrs. Bemrose and Sons send us a whole series of handbooks, one for each of the railways, and printed uniform with the time-books issued by the companies. They are compiled on the panoramic plan, each page being vertically bisected by a little  railway, with two little trains running, the one up to, the other down from, town, and with all the stations, tunnels, nver-crossings, &c., duly marked. On either side is a brief description of the various places lying on that side of the road, and the whole forms a handy companion on any of those country excursions which are probably never so thoroughly enjoyed as after a long spell of London.  

Borough (The).—The Borough lies on the Surrey side of London-bridge, and is one of the busiest and most crowded parts of London. The scene at the open space at the foot of the bridge, where innumerable streets seem coming up from the lower grounder side, others emerging from under railway arches, and all contributing their share to the great flow of traffic, is bewildering. The traffic here is of a different character from that at that other great centre in front of the Mansion House. There are comparatively few hansom cabs, except those which come down from the great group of railway stations; there are omnibuses, but not in very great numbers; the bulk of the traffic is in great wagons and vans and in carts of all kinds. The beautiful church of St. Savious’s, close to the western corner of the southern approach to the bridge, although externally spoilt and dwarfed the high level line of railway which runs by its side, is one of the ecclesiastical gems of London.        

Botanic Society Gardens (Royal), Regent’s Park occupy about 18 acres in the Inner Circle. There is a large conservatory, well stocked with fine plants. During the season promenades are held, and there are also splendid exhibitions of fruits and flowers, which, though possibly not quite so much the fashion as those of the Horticultural Society at Kensington-gore are in point of picturesqueness of site and general effect decidedly superior, and at which prizes to a large amount are distributed. The gardens are supported by the subscriptions of fellows and members (see LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES), and in respect of natural beauty are unequalled by any in London. NEAREST Railway Station, Portland-road; Omnibus Routes, Marylebone-road and Albany.street; Cab Rank, Portland-road Station. 

Box Hill—A pretty country place among the Surrey hills, of which it commands beautiful views. Chalk soil, and very healthy, but houses almost impossible to obtain. An excellent place for picnics, and well known to travellers by the Dorking and Box-hill coaches. From Victoria or London-bridge (1h. 10m.), 1st,3/8 5/2; 2nd, 2/10, 4/-; 3rd, 1/10, 2/10. Charing-cross (1h 18m.), 1st, 4/-, 6/-; 2nd, 3/-, 4/6; 3rd, 2/1, 3/3. 

Boxing.Professiona1 pugilism has died out, as much choked by the malpractices of its followers as strangled by public opinion;  and the public-houses kept by such men as Ben Caunt, Nat Langham, or Jem Ward, are no longer among the attractions London life has to offer to the Corinthian Toms or Jerry Hawthorns of the day, whose manner of enjoying themselves would indeed somewhat astonish their prototypes. The “noble art of self-defence” is not, however, a altogether neglected, but finds its place among the athletic sports, and the clubs by which it is encouraged may be congratulated on keeping alive one of the oldest institutions, in the way of manly exercise, on record. Perhaps the two most important of these clubs are the Clapton Boxing Club with over 100 members, and the London Boxing Club; the former of which was originally started a couple of years ago among the oarsmen of the River Lea, the latter being an offshoot of the West London Rowing Club. Boxing, it may be noted, has always been popular with rowing men as a capital exercise for keeping up some sort of condition during the winter months. The Clapton Boxing Club requires an entrance-fee of 5s.and an annual subscription of 5s. the election is by ballot at a general meeting, one black ball in five to exclude. The season is from October to March, and the practice-nights are Mondays and Thursdays, when a professional instructor attends. Valuable prizes are from time to time offered for competition among gentlemen amateurs. The head-quarters of the club are at the Swan Hotel, Upper Clapton, where the hon. Sec. may be addressed. With a, perhaps unconscious, touch of humour, the club has adopted scarlet as its distinctive colour—delicately suggestive of the “claret” which is occasionally ‘ tapped” at its meetings. The members of the West London Boxing Club meet at the “Bedford Head,” Maiden-lane, Strand. Some few years ago the Marquis of Queensberry presented three handsome challenge cups for the encouragement of amateur boxers, and the light, middle, and heavy weights compete for these at Lillie-bridge once a year. The entrance fee is 10s. for each candidate, and the winners receive silver medals. There is the further inducement that if the prize be won three years in succession the holder will receive a handsome silver cup. The judging is in the hands of the committee of the Amateur Athletic Club, the secretary of which may be applied to for further information, and there is an important clause in the rules that the committee reserve the right of requiring a reference or of refusing an entry. The London Athletic Club and the German Gymnastic Society also have boxing clubs during the winter months (see ATHLETICS). 

Brazil—MINISTRY, 32, Grosvenor-gardens. NEAREST Railway Station, Victoria; Omnibus Routes, Buckingham Palace-road, Grosvenor-place, and Victoria-street; Cab Rank Victoria Station. CONSULATE, 6, Great Winchester-street. NEAREST Railway Station, Bishopsgate; Omnibus Route, Old Broad-street; Cab Rank, New Broad-street. 

Brethren, Places of Worship —The following information has been kindly furnished by the respective ministers, the “terms of membership” being given in their own words:

“BETHESDA GOSPEL HALL,” 1a, New North-road, Hoxton.— Terms of membership: “Life in Christ, with consistency of walk.” Seats all free.

MOSCOW ROAD HALL, 23, Moscow-road, Bayswater.—Terms of membership: “Belief in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God. Eternal salvation in no other name.” Seats all free.   

THE ROOM. 346 Goswell-road. —Terms of mem6ership: “To be a Christian truly, and no connection with systems; and if we do anything dishonouring to His name we are censured, and even put out of communion.” Seats all free; supported by collections after breaking of bread; after expenses are paid the rest is for the poor. Meet on the Lord’s Day to break bread in remembrance of His death. No paid minister.           

Bricabrac.—in London as everywhere else, the bricabrac hunter and collector of works of art must very carefully bear in mind the old maxim, caveat emptor. While among the London dealers in such goods there are many most respectable and trustworthy men, there are many of quite different class; and, unfortunately, as a rule, the power of discriminating between them is only to be obtained by possibly disastrous, experience. Let the buyer, to begin with, bear in mind that there are only three courses open to him, if he would buy with satisfaction to himself and credit to his collection. The first and simplest, as well as the rarest, is that he shall go to market thoroughly understanding what he is about;.  the second, which is occasionally dangerous, is to trust to a well-informed friend; and the third, is to know where to find a straight-forward dealer in what he wants, who will treat him well and openly. In the last case it is well not to pretend to any more knowledge than you may actually possess. The expert will infallibly find you out, and the temptation to take advantage of you will be unmeasurably increased. The following list includes most of the leading houses in London:

ANNOOT & Co., Old Bond-st. Furniture.

BOORE, W., Strand. Gold and silver.

DAVIS, FREDERICK, 49, Pail Mall. Sevres. French Furniture, &c.

DAVIS, Mrs. Charles-street, Soho. Antique lace. Silver knick-nacks.

DURLACHER, H, 7, King-street, St. James’s. Expert of all kinds of works of art.

JOSEPH, E., 158, New Bond. Street. Dresden china.

MARKS, DURLACHER BROS., 395 Oxford-st. China, tapestry, antique leather, &c.

MYERS, A., & Son, Bond-street. Oriental and Persian.

PHILLIPS, New Bond-street. Gold and silver.

REYNOLDS, W., 18, Broad-street, W.C. Wedgwood ware.

WAREHAM, Castle-street, Leicester-square. Oriental china and enamels.

WERTHEIMER, S., 154, New Bond-st. Ormolu, furniture, Sevres.

WHITEHEAD, T., 8, Duke-street, St. James’s. Bronzes, silver, prints, enamels, majolica, &c.

Bridges. — After a long struggle the metropolitan bridges, as far west as Westminster, are now all free. Beyond Westminster tolls are  still in the ascendant. There are 12 bridges in all, viz.: 8 for carriage and foot-passenger traffic; 2 for railway traffic, with sidewalks for foot-passengers only; and 2 exclusively or railway purposes. Commencing with the highest up-stream they run as follows: Chelsea, Grosvenor (railway), Vauxhall, Lambeth, Westminster, Charing-cross (railway and foot), Waterloo, Blackfriars, Alexandra (railway), Southwark, Cannon-street (railway and foot), and London; each of which, together with the Tower Subway, will be found under its proper alphabetical heading. 

Britannia Theatre, Hoxton-street, Hoxton.—An unusually well built theatre, and, apart from any critical estimate of the performances, one of the sights which a visitor should on no account miss seeing. There is very little attempt at decoration, the brick wall left bare. But the shape of the building is perfect, there not being a single seat from pit to gallery which does not command a good view of the stage. This latter, too, is one of the most commodious in London. The performances are, of course, not of the West-end type, not being intended for a West-end audience. But they are almost always good of their kind. The great point of interest for the visitor is the audience itself; and the general arrangements in front, all intended for the accommodation of those accustomed to the penny rather than the pound as the basis of their calculations, are well worth noting. NEAREST Railway Station, Shoreditch (N.L.); Omnibus Routes, Kingsland-road, Pitfield-street, and Old-street, St. Luke’s. 

British Museum.— (see MUSEUM, BRITISH.) 

Bromley.—A suburban village with pretty neighbourhood around; gravelly soil; rents about average. At the station end of the town is the old palace of the bishops of Rochester; at the other the low red brick buildings of Bromley College for clergymen’s widows and unmarried daughters. Bickley, Bromley Common, Southborough, and Shortlands are all outlying offshoots of Brom!ey; the first and last having stations of their own, the former about three minutes farther, the other about the same distance nearer town. From Charing-cross (S.E., 45 min.), Victoria (38 min.), Holborn-viaduct (42 min.), 1st, 1/9, 2/3; 2nd, 1/4, 1/9; 3rd, -/10, 1/5. And from Cannon-street and London-bridge. 

Brompton.—was at one time almost exclusively the artist quarter and is still largely frequented by the votaries of the brush and chisel, though of late years Belgravia has been encroaching upon its boundaries, and Belgravian rents are stealing westward. Lies rather low, and on what was at one time swampy ground, but thoroughly well drained, Climate mild, as evidenced by its selection for the Consumption Hospital. Since the fields have been covered with rows of splendid houses a considerable portion of what was once Brompton has thrown off its former name, and taken that of South Kensington. Thus South Kensington Museum is separated only by the Oratory from Brompton Church. It may be questioned whether anything remains of Brompton except the name of its road, and of the row and square and it is probable that even the inhabitants of Brompton-square, head their letters South Kensington, while Thurloe-square, Onslow Square and Pelham-crescent, once the heart of Brompton have all gone over to the more fashionable quarter. The name, however, exists in West Brompton. This locality, which was once called little Chelsea, took its new name just about the time that Brompton assumed the name of South Kensington. In another generation people will wonder why the church and road are called Brompton, when the only Brompton known lies near Chatharn. NEAREST Railway Stations, West Brompton, Gloucester-road, and South Kensington Omnibus Routes, Brompton-road and Fulham-road. 

Brooks’s Club, 60, St.James’s-street. — (See BOODLE’S CLUB) 

Brookwood —The station for Necropolis, in a pretty, healthy country, very open and healthy. Villas are beginning to spring up about here, but the place is still in its infancy. Rents moderate. From Waterloo (55 min.) 1st, 5/8, 8/6; 2nd, 4/-, 6/3; 3rd, 2/3, 4/- 

Broxbourne. — A favourite fishing quarter, but it is as well to remember that the fishing, like almost all fishing of any value within reach of London, is strictly reserved. Lies rather low and flat, and on clay soil. A special feature in Broxbourne is the “Crown” inn, whither anglers resort, which has a good reputation for creature comforts, and which rather goes in for exclusiveness—” van-parties” not being admissible to any share in its hospitalities. The annual subscription for the fishing over between four and five miles of the Lea, which just at this point begins to be picturesque, is £1 1s.; if for trout, £2 2s. Day tickets: for trout, 5s.;  jack, 2s.; bottom fishing, 1s. Rents moderate. From Liverpool-street (43 min.), 1st, 3/3, 4/9; 2nd, 2/3, 3/6; 3rd, 1/6, 2/6. 

Buckhurst Hill. —In the neighbourhood of Epping Forest; some very pretty and wild country within easy walking distance. Rents moderate. There are some big old inns about the place, which was the starting point of the old “Easter Hunt”; the principal of them, the “Roebuck,” boasting upwards of 20 acres of pleasure ground, with a hall capable of dining 500 persons. From Liverpool-street (43.), 1st, 1/10, 2/4; 2nd 2/2 1/9; 3rd, -/11, 1/3. Chalk Farm (59 min.), 1st, 2/-, 3/-;  2nd, 1/6, 2/3. 

Buckingham Palace is a building as devoid of architectural pretensions as could well be found even in London. It is the only royal palace in London ever used by the Queen as a residence, and until within the last few years was confined exclusively to that purpose, both drawing-rooms and levees being held at St. James’s. Latterly the crush at the former has been found unendurable, and they have been transferred to the larger rooms of Buckingham Palace. The building itself has been considerably enlarged since it was first built in the reigns of George IV and William IV., on the site of old Buckingham House, and the interior arrangements are now fairly handsome and tolerably commodious. It is not, however, nor can it ever be, a really fitting town palace for the sovereign of England. There are some few good pictures, but no regular collection. The part of the establishment best worth seeing is the Royal Stables, for which an order must be obtained from the department of the Master of the Horse. The gardens, occupying the space on the north front—where are Her Majesty’s private apartments—between Constitution-hill and Grosvenor-place, are interesting. NEAREST Railway Stations, Victoria and St. James’s-park; Omnibus Routes, Grosvenor-place, Victoria-street, Whitehall, and Piccadilly; Cab Rank, James-street.

Buenos Ayres,—(See ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.) 

Building Societies.—These are societies established for the purpose of raising by subscription a fund for making advances to their members by way of mortgage upon security of freehold, copyhold, or leasehold property, repayable by periodical instalments. The first society on record was the Greenwich Building Society, founded in the year 1809. From that time until 1836 several existed. In the latter year the Act of 6 & 7 William IV, C. 32, was passed for the purpose of affording these societies encouragement and protection, and this Act continues to regulate all societies established previous to 1874 , and not registered under the Act passed in that year. In 1874 the Act of 37 & 38 Victoria, C. 42, was passed, which not only governs those established after the passing of the Act, but also all the then existing societies which should register themselves under its provisions. This statute confers various powers upon building societies, treats them as bodies corporate having a common seal, and declares the liability of members to be limited in respect of any share upon which no advance has been made to the amount already paid or in arrear on such share, and in respect of any share upon which an advance has been made to the amount payable under any mortgage to the society. Since 1836 it is estimated that building societies have enabled more than 100,000 persons to become proprietors of houses or land. They are especially advantageous in the case of members purchasing the houses of which they are tenants, such members applying the rents in repayment of the advance, and thus converting rent into capital. Very little liability attaches to the society on account of any depreciation in the value of any property, as the mortgage securities are constantly improving as every instalment is paid. Members have the advantage of knowing before they commence negociations the exact amount they will have to pay for legal and survey charges, for which a moderate scale is always provided and set forth in the rules. Building societies may be divided into three classes, viz: (a) ~ Permanent; (b) Terminating; and (c) Bowkett and Starr-Bowkett societies.

(a) Permanent societies consist of two classes of members, viz.:investing and borrowing. Investing members, who take shares which can either be paid up in full or by periodical payments, interest being allowed in the meantime. Borrowing members who secure the  amount borrowed by way of mortgage, the same being repayable by periodical instalments extending over a fixed period of years.

Amongst the principal societies of this class may be mentioned the following, viz.: Athenaeum, Birkbeck, Carlton, Liberator, Monarch, Planet, Reliance, Standard, Sun, and Temperance.

(b) Terminating societies consist of members making a periodical subscription during the existence of the society, the object being to continue the society until every member shall have had an advance. When the subscriptions amount to a sufficient sum to be advanced, the amount is lent to one of the members upon mortgage, who then pays an increased subscription so long as the society lasts. The chief difference between these and permanent societies is that in these societies all the members must join at the same time, or on joining afterwards will be required to make a back payment equal to the subscriptions from the commencement of the society. No member can with certainty calculate how long the society will last, or how long he will have to subscribe but in permanent societies, membership may commence and cease at any time.

(c)Bowkett and Starr-Bowkett societies are also terminating societies, and differ but little from those last mentioned. They were originated by Dr. Bowkett, and have been improved upon by Mr. Starr. Each of the members of these societies subscribes a weekly sum, and when an amount sufficient for an appropriation has been    received a ballot or sale takes place, and the member obtaining the appropriation secures the repayment    amount without by way of mortgage, by periodical instalments extended over 10 or 12 ½ years. The instalments so repaid increase the funds out of which, together with the other members’ subscriptions, future appropriations are made. The member continues the weekly subscription on his shares till he has paid the sum mentioned in the rules, and this is returned to him on the termination of the society less a small deduction for working expense,. The principle of these societies is, that the member lends the society annually a small sum, to be repaid at its termination, in return for which the society lends him a large sum without interest for a certain period. 
The following are the principal Building Societies, with their objects mid term, of subscription, according to the official returns furnished at the Editor’s request by their respective secretaries. The societies omitted are those from which his request for information has failed to elicit any reply:

BIRKBECK BUILDING SOCIETY, 29 and 30, Southampton-buildings, Chancery-lane. — Subscription: Amount varies according to the term for which money is borrowed. Object: To enable its members to purchase their own houses by advancing the value, and taking payments by monthly instalments extending over any period not exceeding 21 years.

BIRKBECK FREEHOLD LAND SOCIETY, 29 and 30, Southampton buildings, Chancery-lane,- Subscription: According to value of land purchased. Object: To enable its members to purchase freehold land in small plots for the erection of houses, or to cultivate as gardens; the owners thus obtaining the county franchise.

BOROUGH OF LAMBETH No.3 PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 128 Westminster- bridge-road. — Subscription: 5s. per month per share to inveStors of  £60 shares. Object:    To enable persons to purchase house property by making advances repayable by monthly instalments.

COMMERCIAL PERMANENT BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 32, East lndia-dock.road1 Limehouse.— Subscription (no information).Object:To enable provident persons to invest large or small sums at a remunerative interest. To lend the funds so invested upon mortgages of freehold and leasehold property to members possessing or purchasing such property.

COMMERCIAL UNION BUILDING SOCIETY AND DEPOSIT BANK, 45, Fish-street-hill.— Subscription  Shares, £25 each, payable in one sum or by subscription of  2s. 6d. per share per month; 5 per cent. allowed on deposits, drawing accounts, or shares. Object: To enable its members to purchase freehold or leasehold house property or land.

EFFRA MUTUAL BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 3, Bell-yard, Subscription:  investing shares, £60, payable by monthly subscriptions of 10s.; borrowing shares, £10 each. Object: To enable its members profitably to invest their savings, or to erect or purchase their own dwellings or other leasehold or freehold property.

GENERAL MUTUAL INVESTMENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 44, Bedford~row. Subscription: 2s. 6d., 5s., and 10s. monthly. Object: To advance the amount required to purchase houses for occupation, and generally to assist the working classes to acquire real and leasehold estate.

GLANVILLE PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 1, Queen-street-place, Cannon-street. — Subscription: Investment shares, £25 each, payable in one sum, or at a minimum rate of 5s. monthly. Object: To provide a safe means for investment of large or small sums of money. Interest 5 per cent, and bonus. Money only lent upon houses and land with a fair margin.

HATHERLEY PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 30, Great Smith-street, - Subscription: 5s per month upon each share until £15 shall have been paid, which is the price of a completed share. Object: To make advances to its members upon security of freehold or leasehold property.

HOUSE AND LAND INVESTMENT TRUST LIMITED, 19 and 20, Wal.brook, Cannon-street.-- Subscription : Any sums, from 5s. and upwards, received on deposit Object: The purchase and  development of approved freehold, leasehold, and copyhold properties, and generally for the buying, selling, and holding of lands and houses.

HOUSE PROPERTY AND INVESTMENT COMPANY LIMITED, 92 Cannon-street.- Subscription : Shares, £25 each, now at £5 per share premium. Object: Purchase and sale of productive and progressive house property, and improving the dwellings of the working classes on the self-supporting principle.

KNIGHTSBRIDGE MUTUAL BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 180, Brompton-road. — Subscription: 2s weekly per share. Object: To advance sums from £250 and upwards on leasehold or freehold property, repayable in 10 years. The appropriations are obtained by ballot (free of interest) or by sale (for a bonus).

LAND LOAN AND ENFRANCHISEMENT COMPANY (Incorporated by special Act of Parliament) 22, Great George-street, Westminster – Subscription: (not stated). Object: The improvement of landed estates.

LONDON AND GENERAL PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 337, Strand. – Subscription: Shares of £40 each, payable either in full or by sums of not less than 5s monthly. Object: To enable the members to become possessors of residential or other property upon easy terms.

LONDON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 37 Queen-st, Cannon-st. – Subscription: Shares, £50 payments of 10s each. Object: To enable members to purchase house property for occupation or investment.

LONDON CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL BUILDING SOCIETY, 13, Blomfield Street, London Wall – Subscription: Voluntary and vary in amount. Object: To promote the erection of Congregational chapels in the metropolis (police district). 138 have been thus erected.

LONDON PROVIDENT BUILDING SOCIETY AND BANK, 51, Moorgate-street. – Subscription: £10 paid-up shares can always be obtained. Dividend and bonus have averaged 6 ½ per cent. over sixteen years. Object: To provide a good and safe investment for money, and to enable persons to buy houses for their own occupation by instalments; also to assist persons generally to buy freehold and leasehold properties.

MERCANTILE AND GENERAL PERMANENT BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, Myddleton Hall, Islington, and Ward Schools, 160a, Aldersgate-street. —Subscription: Shares £50 each, payable 5s. per month; last dividend, 6 ½  per cent. Object: To advance to its members money for the purpose of purchasing their own houses, or of acquiring freehold and leasehold properties by their own rents.

MONARCH INVESTMENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 23 Finsbury-circus.— Subscription: Shares, £50, fully paid, or by subscription 5s. per month. Object: To raise by the subscriptions of its members a fund for making advances to members on security of freehold, leasehold, or copyhold estates by way of mortgage.

MORNINGTON PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 158, KentishTown-road. — Subscription: 5s. per month until £10 share completed. Entrance fee, 2s. per share;  or shares can be fully paid up at once; entrance fee in latter case, 7s. 6d. per share. Object: To enable its members to become owners of real or leasehold property, either for occupation or investment, for which purpose repayment of principal and interest can be spread over any term not exceeding 15 years.

NATIONAL CONTRACT COMPANY LIMITED, AND ORDERS OF TEMPERANCE, FIRE-PROOF, AND GENERAL BUILDING SOCIETY, 156, St. John-street-road.—Subscription: £5 and £10 shares respectively. Object: Both societies established for the purpose of advancing money or procuring the same at moderate rates of interest, and so enable the middle and working classes to purchase their own dwellings by easy rents.

NATIONAL FREEHOLD LAND SOCIETY (Established 1849), 25, Moorgate. street, — Subscription: £30 Sbares; entrance fee, 1s. per share of £30. Object: To receive money on deposit from members, shares may be paid in full or by any sums at any time at option of member. Interest allowed, 3 per cent. on uncompleted shares, 4 per cent. on completed shares.

OCEAN PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 727, Commercial-road-east .— Subscription (no information). Object: To raise and maintain by the subscription of members and loan, a stock or fund for making advances to members upon the security of freehold, copyhold, or leasehold property by way of mortgage, pursuant to the Building Societies Act, 1874.

OFFICIAL AND GENERAL PERMANENT BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 8, Duke-street, Adelphi.— Subscription: Shares, £50 each; entrance fee, 1s. per share. Object: To afford its members means of investing capital, and of procuring funds for the purchase of houses for their own occupation or of other freehold and leasehold property.

PADDINGTON LAND AND BUILDING SOCIETY LIMITED, 123, Edgware.road— Subscription: Shares, £10 each. Object: To advance money upon mortgage of freehold, leasehold or copyhold property, and to receive cash on deposit from shareholders and the general public.

PERPETUAL INVESTMENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 16, New Bridge.street, Blackfriars.— Object: The objects of the society are to enable persons to invest money in large or small sums at a fair rate of interest, and to assist persons to secure houses for their own occupation or investment.

PORTLAND INCORPORATED PERMAMENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 35, Great Marylebone-street, Portland-place. — Subscription: £25 shares, paid up in full or by monthly payments of 5s., bearing interest at 5 per cent., and participating in bonus two years after issue. Object: For the purpose of raising by the subscription of its members a stock or fund for making advances to members, out of the funds of the society, upon security of freehold, copyhold, or leasehold estate, by way of mortgage.

ROCK PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 52, Chancery-lane. —Subscription (no information). Object: For making advances on freehold, leasehold, and copyhold estates.

SOCIETIES OF EQUALITY (Nos.6,7,8,9, & 10) (No. 1 established 1845), 13, Pentonville-road.— Subscription : 5s. per month per share. Object:    To make advances to its members for the purpose of purchasing houses, and as a means of investment.

STEPNEY AND SUBURBAN PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 527,Commercial-road-east – Subscription: 5s per share per month. Object: To raise a stock or fund by monthly subscriptions for making advances to members out of the funds of the society upon the security of freehold, copyhold, or leasehold estates by way of mortgage.

SUN BUILDING AND INVESTMENT SOCIETY, 12, Holborn.— Subscription:    Realised shares £10 each; subscription shares, 5s. per month. Object: To offer a channel for the investment of small savings at a higher rate of interest than is obtained at ordinary savings banks.

SUN PERMANENT BUILDING SOCIETY, 4, New North-rd, Hoxton.— Subscription: £30 shares, payable at once, or by monthly instalments. Object: To enable members to purchase house property for occupation or investment.

TRAFALGAR PERMANENT BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETY, 24, Salisbury-street, Strand.— Subscription: £10 shares; 2s. per month to be paid on account of each share. Object: To make advances to persons to enable them to erect or purchase one or more houses, or freehold, copyhold, or leasehold estate, pursuant to 6 & 7 Will. IV., C. 32.

WEST LONDON ECONOMIC BUILDING SOCIETY, 214, Church-street, Paddington. — Subscription: For investors, 5s. per month per £6o share; borrowers, as per table in rules or prospectus. Object: To raise a fund by monthly subscriptions, far the purpose of making advances to members by way of mortgage, to enable them to purchase freehold, leasehold, or copyhold property. The society is a permanent one, established 1850. 

Bunhill Fields.—The great burial ground of Dissenters. Originally a “chapel of ease” for the City charnel-houses, and later a common burial ground for the victims of the Great Plague, Bunhill-fieids came into the possession of the Dissenters about two hundred years ago. The prohibition of intramural interments closed Bunhill-fields, as it closed many other places of burial, and the ground is now planted and open to the public as a place of recreation. It is to be feared that, as was the case with a Drury-lane burying ground, which was similarly devoted to the public use and benefit, the London “rough” has far too much to do in the old Dissenters’ ground. Perhaps the associations of the place would have but little influence with this class of people, even if they knew whose ghosts might haunt the place. But no student of English literature can forget that Bunhill-fields received the bodies of John Bunyan and of Daniel Defoe. NEAREST Railway Station, Moorgate -street; Omnibus Routes, City-road; Cab Rank, Old-street. 

Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, near Old Bond-street.— A double row of shops, like a Parisian passage, principally tenanted by bonnet-makers, ladies’ boot. makers, and sellers of knicknacks. NEAREST Railway Station, St. James’s-park; Omnibus Routes Regent-street, Oxford-street anti Piccadilly; Cab Rank, Piccadilly. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club, 17, Savile-row, W. — Is intended to bring together amateurs, collectors, and others interested in art; to afford ready means for consultation between persons of special knowledge and experience in matters relating to the fine arts; and to provide accommodation for showing and comparing rare works in the session of the members and friends. To provide in the reading room periodicals, books, and catalogues, foreign as well as English, having reference to art. To make arrangements in the gallery and rooms of the club for the exhibition of pictures, original drawings, engravings, and rare books, enamels ceramic wares, coins, plate, and other valuable works. To hold, in addition to the above, once in the year or oftener, special exhibitions which shall have for their object the elucidation of some school, master, or specific art. Members to have the privilege of introducing friends to these special collections. To render the club a centre where occasionally conversazioni may be held of an art-character. Members to have the power of introducing two visitors, ladies or gentlemen. To provide, in addition to the above art objects, the ordinary accommodation and advantages of a London club. The club possesses a valuable library of books of reference on art. The entrance fee is £5 5s., and the subscription £5 5s. The power of election is vested in the committee, and is by ballot. 

Bushey Park leads from the Teddington.road to Hampton Court Palace. One of the most favourite resorts of picnic parties near London. But for one great redeeming feature Bushey-park would be sufficiently uninteresting. The mile-long avenue of horse chestnuts compensates for the flatness and tameness of its surroundings. Except, perhaps, the Long Walk at Windsor, the neighbourhood of London can boast no finer avenue than this; and in springtime, when the trees are covered with their great pyramids of blossom, they present a sight worth travelling a long distance to see. In odd contrast to the lively groups of holiday makers, who crowd the park on a fine summer’s day, is the fountain, a forlorn-looking basin which breaks the line of the great avenue. NEAREST Railway Station, Hampton Court. From Waterloo (42 min.), 1st, 2/-, 2/; 2nd, 1/6, 2/- ; 3rd, 1/3, 1/10.