see also James Grant on Workhouses in Sketches in London - click here
THE "MILK" OF POOR-LAW "KINDNESS."
AT a late meeting of the rate-payers of Bethnal-green, one of the
body made the following statement, adding that he had been a witness of the fact :-
"An infant, only five weeks old, was separated from
the mother, being occasionally brought to her for the breast."
What a beneficent presence is this same Poor-Law, that it takes to its bosom babes and sucklings- that it lavishes upon callow infancy the tenderness, the love, the gushing kindness of maternal instincts! Doth it not realise the parable of NATHAN? Doth not the wailing, helpless piece of humanity become the Poor-Law's "ewe-lamb," eating of its own meat, drinking of its cup, lying in its bosom, and being unto it as a daughter? Can we sufficiently venerate the wisdom, the benevolence of a statute that supplies to pauper infancy the substitute for a mother - that dandies it, kisses it, prattles to it from the eloquent fulness of the heart, surrounding, strengthening, and comforting its feeble nature with the thousand nameless acts of mother's love - with all the holiness of mother's best emotions?
What was the celebrated wooden eagle and iron fly of REGIOMONTANUS - the eagle that hovered over the head of MAXIMILIAN with a crown in its beak - the mechanic fly that flew about the royal banquet - (for the account of which things see the old chroniclers,) - to the automaton Poor-Law mother at work in the Union, dandling, kissing, fondling its pauper multitudes? To construct a wooden eagle - to fashion an iron fly - both of which should have motion and apparent intelligence, was certainly a high mechanic achievement: but what is it to the greater triumph of our day, that, by a le Roi le veut, makes on the instant a Union Mother, as the old painters limned a Mother Nature, with a hundred breasts; with this difference, indeed, in the statute parent, that they are cold and milkless!
Let us watch the outward development of the inward love beating in the heart of the Somerset-house automaton, the mother-in-law (for he was officially born of the statute) of Mr. EDWIN CHADWICK. Her adopted babe of five weeks old screams for its natural parent; and the old hag - the childless SYCORAX, unblest even by a CALIBAN of her own - hobbles with the squalling nuisance, the pauper-brat, the law-made offal of the land, to its natural parent, who has offended the decencies of the earth by adding to the list of God's helpless creatures, and who is therefore doomed to the hospitality of the Union. The Poor-Law witch sits her down whilst the baby feeds at the mother's breast, - waiting, grudgingly waiting, until baby-pauper has made its natural meal, - and then, with most relentless haste, snatching it from its mother's arms, in punishment of the said mother's iniquity of want. The foolish woman would sit and watch, and solace her mother's heart with looking on her baby's face,- there is, at least, a legend that mothers out of a Union are wont to do so; but step-dame Poor-Law forbids the luxury, and snatching the baby to its parchment breast, carries it off, until it squall and squall again for the maternal bosom, and is at length triumphant in its roaring.
Mother Poor-Law has now the baby to herself. Let us watch her games with it. How she dandIes it! How she throws it up and down, and kisses, and prattles to it ; and with softly-beaming eyes and honied words, becomes communicant with the dawning intelligence, that her love still more awakens! What a Mother of Mothers! Yea, what a Mother Cole is she! Tories, Whigs, and Radicals - for ye all, more or less, assisted at the work - gather round, and marvel at the automaton parent ye have fashioned ! Would ye not swear she lived and breathed, so lively are her antics with the pauper babe? Never think it : for a moment, pass no such slander on your handiwork - there is no more life in the creature than in a shadow thrown by a corpse - no more throb of heart than in a mummy of old Egypt.
And herein, O legislators! is your excelling triumph ; herein do ye show yourselves more than equal to the magicians of the olden day, who would conjure up menials to do their bidding from the barren sand - from the surrounding air; who would have servitors, to all external appearance, of bone and muscle, and quick red blood - but who were mere phantasmata, looking human, but indeed heartless, brainless, pulseless. Of these is too often the Poor-Law ruling the Union. Of these is the seeming humanity that, preaching the ultimate dignity of men's nature - of the nature to be developed, it may be, in the year 3000 - would strip the present man of all that elevates him above the ox that breaks the clod. Of these is the shadowy harridan, that snatches the puling five weeks' babe from its mother's breast, and counts out to it drops of mother's milk, as misers count ingots.
Nor in the terror of the Poor-Law confined to the walls of the Union. No ; it waylays the poor in their mid-day walks - a shadow falls from it that darkens the noon-day earth! Men become mad with their very fears of the horror that then "lays knives under the pillows;" and, to the disordered wits of the failing, struggling husband and father, preaches homicide as the best duty.
What screams pierce through yonder dwelling! People run in and out with speechless horror in their stone-like faces! Some crime has been accomplished-some deed that sinks the doer to the demons. What can it be?
A man - heretofore believed a mild, kind, gentle creature,
one noted for his homely affections, for his love and tenderness to his children, has even
now become their murderer. A fear of want brought madness upon him - madness, made by the
Poor-Law; the fiend that has haunted his solitary hours - that, in the very
intensity of his affections, has curdled his heart's blood, destroyed his
brain, and to his bewildered thoughts made him the kindest, the most provident father, a thrice-dyed murderer. He
has saved the children from the Union, by blessing them with coffins.
Is this a picture of the imagination-a ghastly fiction of blood vending novelists?
And yet, we think, we see Lord HOWICK in his very easy library chair with the last Poor-Law Report in his hand, - we see him throw himself back, and hear him crow like chanticleer at the marvellous story we have forged as time effect of Poor-Law benevolence! His Lordship is, doubtless, a good Christian : a truth which, we question not, he illustrates in the family pew every Sabbath day. His Lordship - the very champion of the Poor-Law - is, we are sure of it, touched with the very thanksgiving of humility when he reflects upon Christmas-day; when he remembers the Nativity of that benevolence for the first time preached to suffering man of man's eternal equality; of the necessity of an interchange of love and help - of the cultivation of the affections - of the sacred duty (propounded from the very throne of Heaven) of charity, in its largest and most comprehensive meaning.
Imagine Lord HOWICK - his ears it may be ringing with the rude Christmas carol sung beneath his window (if, indeed, the police, town or rural, have not scared the minstrels hence), imagine his Lordship, in the depths of his Christianity, and in the comprehensiveness of his statesmanship, plunging his goose-quill into his standish, for the magnanimous purpose of writing down small ale and pauper plum pudding! There had been a talk - a foolish rumour of a foolish intention, to regale certain workhouse people with a gill or so of ale, and a slice of pudding, that Christmas might be to their senses something more than a name - that they might feel that a recollection of the Advent of CHRIST yet throbbed in the hearts of their richer fellow-Christians. But no! the Poor-Law - at least in the opinion of Lord HOWICK - was expressly passed to repeal the New Testament, and there should be no chance of the paupers running riotous upon the strength of illegally applied Christianity. Lord HOWICK held up his Christian hand against ale and pudding to the workhouse; and having fulfilled his duty as a born senator and a citizen, dined that day off - shall we say ten courses?
And with all this, strange it is that the poor look with sullen eyes at the men with pockets ! With this daily preaching, and practical illustration of the created inferiority of men who have nothing, to those who have "land and beeves," or some tangible property, - the poor are obstinate, and vain enough to imagine that they have a common nature with those who, on the strength of their enjoyed comforts, call themselves their betters! It is a remarkable and humiliating evidence of popular ignorance - of the hebete condition of the masses, that, with the beautiful machinery of the Poor-Laws, with the thousand social modes, both obvious and subtle, of showing to the poor man his utter uselessness - of proving to him that he has committed a great wrong upon his betters by coming into this world at all, - that he will still not consider himself as being allowed to belong to this earth as a matter of sufferance, but of right. He moreover talks some gibberish, called "sympathy!"
"Sympathy!" Oh ye makers of the Poor Laws, what does the varlet mean?
Punch, Jan.-Jun. 1843
PHYSIC FOR PAUPERS.
THAT branch of medical science which relates to cattle, is
styled veterinary. There is wanted some corresponding epithet to distinguish the
coarser kind of physic which is provided by Poor Law Guardians for paupers. The
subjoined advertisement will be an evidence of the necessity for making this
MEDICAL ASSISTANT.-WANTED, by a practitioner, a YOUNG MAN who knows something of medicine and midwifery, to dispense, &c., and attend, under his superintendence. the duties attached to a small district of a union in London, and who will consider the experience and practice of such as equivalent to a salary. An apprentice who has served the greater part of his time will be suitable. Apply to A. B., Gracechurch-street, City.
To be an assistant to a practitioner amongst the solvent classes, it is considered necessary to know a great deal of medicine and midwifery. The assistant of the medical officer of a union, it seems, need only know "something" of those sciences. For the former vocation, a gentleman who has passed the "Hall and College" is required; for the latter, am apprentice is esteemed suitable. Of course, therefore, the practice of medicine among the poor is quite a different matter from what it is among the rich. It must be so, if an apprentice will do for paupers- as there is every reason to believe he will. He will thus carry out the- great object of the Poor Law, the cure of pauperism itself. He will do much, at any rate, for the relief of that malady, by striking at the root of it-over-population.
Punch, Jul.-Dec. 1847
see also Mayhew on casual wards - click here (1)
see also Mayhew on casual wards - click here (2)
ODE TO ST. PANCRAS.
O SAINT! whose nondescript abode
Adorns that dreary northern road,
Of London, called the New;
Whose tutelary care and name
The neighbouring parish dares to claim
Uncheck'd by scruple or by shame,
With liberty undue.
SAINT PANCRAS, sure thou canst not know
How in thy district matters go,
Or thou wouldst he irate;
Thy under-guardians I regret
Exceedingly to say, have let
Their and thy parish-workhouse get
Into a shameful state.
There, steep'd in dirt, thy paupers lie,
Not quite like pigs-for, in a sty
there still is room and air:
But narrow wards those poor confine,
In holes and corners they recline,
together closer craznm'd than swine:
Pigs would be stifled there.
Then pigs with straw are mostly bles',
But some of these on bare forms rest,
Some on the naked floor.
Thus do the swine of guardians sleep?
Their hogs do any of them keep,
That they may grow their bacon cheap,
ST. PANCRAS, as thy poor?
Yet there are beds, too, of a kind,
And children crowded you will find,
Their scanty sheets within:
A living mass-yet also rife
With something else than human life,
And finger-nails at constant strife
With raging tetter'd skin.
The little air they have alas
Foul with carbonic acid gas
Is even fouler still,
With gas which surges from beneath,
Where things unutterable seethe,
Gas yet more horrible to breathe,
And stronger yet to kill.
That paupers thus, in their own reek,
Plain, if unpleasant, truth I speak,
Lay sweltering cheek by jowl
ST. PANCBAS, was it in thy ken?
Wert thou aware thy parish men
Had with thy name combined a den
Worse than Calcutta's hole?
If Saints between effect and cause
Can step, arresting Nature's laws,
Oh! stay the deadly pest;
(For it already counts its dead):
Fell Typhus that it shall not spread,
And let not Cholera be bred
Out of thy "Workhouse Test.
Punch, March 8, 1856
see also George Sala in Gaslight and Daylight - click here
At a Conversazione of the Poor Law Commissioners, the following curiosities were the other evening shown -
Photograph of a Poor-law Inspector, as he appears when ?inspecting? a workhouse with his eyes shut.
Model of the ?rabbit hutch? which the Farnham Guardians considered in cold blood to be ?quite good enough for tramps?.
A pair of damp sheets from a poorhouse infirmary
A bit of one of the hot bricks by which a girl was scorched severely, and was so weakminded as to die in consequence-
Samples of workhouse wine in various stages of emaciation, showing its increasing weakness in every hand through which it passes, from the master of the workhouse down to the pauper nurse, until at length it reaches the poor patient for whom it is prescribed-
Specimens of an infirmary blanket, warranted not to keep the cold out.
A slice of pauper Christmas pudding, curious as showing how much pudding can be made with how few plums-
One of the toys broken by the order of a master of a workhouse, in order that the children might not be too happy there.
Sketch (coloured) of the cesspool into which the epileptic Farnham pauper fell perversely, and so died.
A specimen of hard, tough beef, administered to toothless paupers, when they are ordered by the doctor a tender mutton-chop.
A bottle of air taken from a workhouse bedroom. In proof of its impurity, a light being placed in it immediately goes out.
One of the newspapers removed by the late Master at Farnham, who feared that the paupers might really be too comfortable.
see also The Seven Curses of London, Chpt. 23
(home page:- Peter Higginbotham's Workhouses Website http://www.workhouses.org.uk/)
see also Thomas Archer in The Pauper, The Thief and The Convict (1) - click here
see also Thomas Archer in The Pauper, The Thief and The Convict (2) - click here
A NIGHT IN A WORKHOUSE
At about nine o'clock on the evening of Monday, the 8th inst, a neat but unpretentious carriage might have been
turning cautiously from the Kennington Road into Princes Road, Lambeth. The curtains
were closely drawn, and the coachman wore an unusually responsible air. Approaching a
public-house which retreated a little from the street, he pulled up; but not so close
that the lights should fall upon the carriage door; nor so distant as to unsettle the mind of any one who chose to imagine that he had halted to drink beer before proceeding to call for the children at a juvenile party. He did not
dismount, nor did any one alight in the usual way; but the
keen observer who happened to watch his intelligent countenance might have seen a furtive glance directed to the wrong
door: that is to say, to the door of the carriage which opened
into the dark and muddy road. From that door emerged a sly
and ruffianly figure, marked with every sign of squalor. He was
dressed in what had once been a snuff-brown coat, but which
had faded to the hue of bricks imperfectly baked. It was not
strictly a ragged coat, though it had lost its cuffs - a bereavement which obliged the wearer's arms to project through the
sleeves two long inelegant inches. The coat altogether was too
small, and was only made to meet over the chest by means of
a bit of twine. This wretched garment was surmounted by a
birds-eye' pocket-handkerchief of cotton, wisped about the
throat hangman fashion; above all was a battered billy-cock
hat, with a dissolute drooping brim. Between the neckerchief
and the lowering brim of the hat appeared part of a face,
unshaven, and not scrupulously clean. The man's hands were
plunged into his pockets, and he shuffled hastily along in boots
which were the boots of a tramp indifferent to~ miry ways.
In a moment he was out of sight; and the brougham, after
waiting a little while, turned about and comfortably departed.
This mysterious figure was that of the present writer. He was bound for Lambeth workhouse, there to learn by actual experience how casual paupers are lodged and fed, and what the 'casual' is like, and what the porter who admits him, and the master who rules over him; and how the night passes with the outcasts whom we have all seen crowding about workhouse doors on cold and rainy evenings. Much has been said on the subject - on behalf of the paupers - on behalf of the officials; but nothing by any one who, with no motive but to learn and make known the truth, had ventured the experiment of passing a night in a workhouse, and trying what it actually is to be a 'casual'.
The day had been windy and chill - the night was cold; and therefore I fully expected to begin my experiences amongst ~ dozen of ragged wretches squatting about the steps and waiting for admission. But my only companion at the door was a decently dressed woman, who, as I afterwards learned, they declined to admit until she had recovered from a fit of intoxication from which she had the misfortune to be still suffering. I lifted the big knocker, and knocked; the door was promptly opened, and I entered. Just within, a comfortable-looking clerk sat at a comfortable desk, ledger before him. Indeed, the spacious hall in every way was as cheery as cleanliness and great mats and plenty of gaslight could make it.
'What do you want?' asked the man who opened the door.
'I want a lodging.'
'Go and stand before the desk,' said the porter; and I obeyed.
'You are late,' said the clerk.
'Am I, sir?'
'Yes. If you come in you'll have a bath, and you'll have to sleep in the shed.'
'Very well, sir.'
'What's your name?'
'Joshua Mason, sir.'
'What are you?'
'An engraver.' (This taradiddle I invented to account for the look of my hands.)
'Where did you sleep last night?'
'Hammersmith,' I answered - as I hope to be forgiven!
'How many times have you been here?'
'Never before, sir.'
'Where do you mean to go when you are turned out in the morning?'
'Back to Hammersmith, sir.'
These humble answers being entered in a book, the clerk called to the porter, saying, 'Take him through. You may as well take his bread with you.'
Near the clerk stood a basket containing some pieces of bread of equal size. Taking one of these, and unhitching a bunch of keys from the wall, the porter led me through some passages all so scrupulously clean that my most serious misgivings were laid to rest.
Then we passed into a dismal yard. Crossing this, my guide led me to a door, calling out, 'Hillo! Daddy, I've brought you another!' Whereupon Daddy opened to us, and let a little of his gaslight stream into the dark where we stood.
'Come in,' said Daddy, very hospitably. There's enough of you tonight, anyhow! What made you so late?'
'I didn't like to come in earlier.'
'Ah! that's a pity now, because you've missed your skilley (gruel). It's the first night of skilley, don't you know, under the new Act.'
'Just like my luck!' I muttered dolefully.
The porter went his way, and I followed Daddy into another apartment where were ranged three great baths, each one containing a liquid so disgustingly like weak mutton broth that my worst apprehensions crowded back.
'Come on, there's a dry place to stand on up at this end,' said Daddy, kindly. 'Take off your clothes, tie em up in your hank'sher, and I'll lock em up till the morning.'
Accordingly, I took off my coat and waistcoat, and was about to tie them together when Daddy cried, 'That ain't enough, I mean everything.'
'Not my shirt, sir, I suppose?'
'Yes, shirt and all; but there, I'll lend you a shirt,' said Daddy. Whatever you take in of your own will be nailed, you know. You might take in your boots, though - they'd be handy if you happened to want to leave the shed for anything; but don't blame me if you lose em.'
With a fortitude for which I hope some day to be rewarded, I made up my bundle (boots and all), and the moment Daddy's face was turned away shut my eyes and plunged desperately into the mutton broth. I wish from the bottom of my heart my courage had been less hasty; for hearing the splash, Daddy looked round and said, 'Lor, now! there was no occasion for that; you look a clean and decent sort of man. It's them filthy beggars' (only he used a word more specific than filthy') 'that want washing. Don't use that towel - here's a clean one! That's the sort! and now here's your shirt (handing me a blue striped one from a heap), and here's your ticket. Number 34 you are, and a ticket to match is tied to your bundle. Mind you don t lose it. They'll nail it from you if they get a chance. Put it under your head. This is your rug - take it with you.'
'Where am I to sleep, please, sir?'
'I'll show you.'
And so he did. With no other rag but the checked shirt to cover me, and with my rug over my shoulders, he accompanied me to the door at which I had entered, and, opening it, kept me standing with naked feet on the stone threshold, full in the draught of the frosty air, while he pointed out the way I should go. It was not a long way, but I would have given much not to have trodden it. It was open as the highway - with flagstones below and the stars overhead; and, as I said before, and cannot help saying again, a frosty wind was blowing.
'Straight across,' said Daddy, to where you see the light shining through. Go in there and turn to the left, and you'll find the beds in a heap. Take one of em and make yourself comfortable.' And straight across I went, my naked feet seeming to cling to the stones as though they were burning hot instead of icy cold (they had just stepped out of a bath, you should remember), till I reached the space through which the light was shining, and I entered in.
No language with which I am acquainted is capable of conveying an adequate conception of the spectacle I then encountered. Imagine a space of about thirty feet by thirty enclosed on three sides by a dingy white-washed wall and roofed with naked tiles which were furred with the damp and filth that reeked within. As for the fourth side of the it was boarded in for (say) a third of its breadth; the remaining space being hung with flimsy canvas, in which was a gap two feet wide at top, widening to at least four feet at bottom. This far too airy shed was paved with stone, the flags so thickly encrusted with filth that I mistook it at first for a floor of natural earth. Extending from one end of my bedroom to the other, in three rows, were certain iron cranks' (of which I subsequently learned the use), with their many arms raised in various attitudes, as the stiffened arms of men are on a battle-field. My bed-fellows lay amongst the cranks, distributed over the flagstones in a double row, on narrow bags scantily stuffed with hay. At one glance my appalled vision took in thirty of them - thirty men, and boys stretched upon sha!lo.w pallets which put only six inches of comfortable hay between them and the. stony floor. Those beds were placed close together, every occupant being provided with a rug like that which I was fain to hug across my shoulders. In not a few cases two gentlemen had clubbed beds and rugs and slept together. In one case (to be further mentioned presently) four bigger than a man's hand! I did not know what to do now. gentlemen had so clubbed together. . Many of my fellow casuals were awake - others asleep or pretending to sleep; and shocking as were the waking ones to look upon, they were quite pleasant when compared with the sleepers. For this reason : the practised and well-seasoned casual seems to have a peculiar way of putting himself to bed. He rolls himself in his rug, tucking - himself in, head and feet, so that he is completely enveloped; and, lying quite still on his pallet, he looks precisely like a corpse covered because of its hideousness. Some were stretched out at full length; some lay nose and knees together; some with an arm or a leg showing crooked through the coverlet. It was like the result of a railway accident: these ghastly figures were awaiting the coroner.
From the moral point of view, however, the wakeful ones were more dreadful still. Towzled, dirty, villanous, they squatted up in their beds, and smoked foul pipes, and sang snatches of horrible songs, and bandied jokes so obscene as to he absolutely appalling. Eight or ten were so enjoying themselves- the majority with the check shirt on and the frowsy rug pulled about their legs; but two or three wore no shirts at all, squatting naked to the waist, their bodies fully exposed in the light of the single flaring jet of gas fixed high up on the wall.
My entrance excited very little attention. There was a horse-pail three parts full of water standing by a post in the middle of the shed, with a little tin pot beside it. Addressing me as 'old pal', one of the naked ruffians begged me to hand I him a swig', as he was werry nigh garspin''. Such an appeal - of course no 'old pal' could withstand, and I gave him a pot full of water. He showed himself grateful for the attention. I should lay over there if I was you,' he said, pointing to the left side of the shed; it's more out of the wind than this ere side is.' I took the good-natured advice and (by this time shivering with the cold) stepped over the stones to where the beds or straw bags were heaped, and dragged one of them to the spot suggested by my naked comrade. But I had no more idea of how to arrange it than of making an apple-pudding; and a certain little discovery added much to my embarrassment. - In the middle of the bed I had selected was a stain of blood bigger than a man's hand! I did not know what to do now. To lie on such a horrid thing seemed impossible; yet to carry back the bed and exchange it for another might betray a degree of fastidiousness repugnant to the feelings of my fellow lodgers and possibly excite suspicions that I was not what I seemed. Just in the nick of time in came that good man Daddy.
'What! not pitched yet?' he exclaimed; here, I'll show you. 1-kilo! somebody's been a-bleedin'! Never mind; let's turn him over. There you are, you see! Now lay down, and cover your tug over you.'
There was no help for it. It was too late to go back. Down I lay, and spread the rug over me. I should have mentioned that I brought in with me a cotton handkerchief, and this I tied round my head by way of a nightcap; but not daring to pull the rug as high as my face. Before I could in any way settle my mind to reflection, in came Daddy once more to do me a further kindness, and point out a stupid blunder which 1 had committed.
'Why, you are a rummy chap said Daddy. You forgot your bread! Lay hold. And look here, I've brought you another rug; it's perishing cold tonight.'
'So saying, he spread the rug over my legs and went away. I was very thankful for the extra covering, but I was in a dilemma about the bread. I couldn't possibly eat it; what, then, was to be done with it? I broke it, however, and in view of such of the company as might happen to be looking made a ferocious bite at a bit as large as a bean, and munched violently.
By good luck, however, I presently got half way over my difficulty very neatly. Just behind me, so close indeed that their feet came within half a yard of my head, three lads were sleeping together.
'Did you ear that, Punch?' one of these boys asked.
'Ear what?' answered Punch, sleepy and snappish.
'Why, a cove forgot his toke! Gordstruth! you wouldn't ketch me a-forgettin' mine.'
'You may have half of it, old pal, if you're hungry,' I observed, leaning up on my elbows.
'Chuck it here, good luck to yer!' replied my young friend, starting up with an eager clap of his dirty hands.
I 'chucked it here', and, slipping the other half under the side of my bed, lay my head on my folded arms.
It was about half-past nine when, having made myself as
comfortable as circumstances permitted, I closed my eyes in
the desperate hope that I might fall asleep, and so escape from
the horrors with which I was surrounded. At seven tomorrow
morning the bell will ring,' Daddy had informed me, and then
you will give up your ticket and get back your bundle.'
Between that time and the present full nine long hours had to
But I was speedily convinced that, at least for the present. sleep was impossible. The young fellow (one of the three who lay in one bed, with their feet to my head) whom my bread had refreshed, presently swore with frightful imprecations that he was now going to have a smoke; and immediately put his threat into execution. Thereupon his bedfellows sat up and lit their pipes too. But oh! if they had only smoked - if they had not taken such an unfortunate fancy to spit at the leg of a crank distant a few inches from my head, how much misery and apprehension would have been spared me! To make matters worse, they united with this American practice an Eastern one: as they smoked they related little autobiographical anecdotes - so abominable that three or four decent men who lay at the farther end of the shed were so provoked that they threatened, unless the talk abated in filthiness, to get up and stop it by main force. Instantly, the voice of every blackguard in the room was raised against the decent ones. They were accused of loathsome afflictions, stigmatized as fighting men out of work' (which must be something very humiliating, I suppose), and invited to a round' by boys young enough to be their grandsons. For several minutes there was such a storm of oaths, threats, and taunts - such a deluge of foul words raged in the room - that I could not help thinking of the fate of Sodom; as, indeed, I did several times during the night. Little by little the riot died out, Without any the slightest interference on the part of the officers.
Soon afterwards the ruffian majority was strengthened by the arrival of a lanky boy of about fifteen, who evidently recognized many acquaintances, and was recognized by them as 'Kay', or perhaps I should write it 'K'. He was a very remarkable-looking lad, and his appearance pleased me much. Short as his hair was cropped, it still looked soft and silky; he had large blue eyes set wide apart, and a mouth that would have been faultless but for its great width; and his voice was as soft and sweet as any woman's. Lightly as a woman, too, he picked his way over the stones towards the place where the beds lay, carefully hugging his cap beneath his arm.
'What cheer, Kay?' Out again, then, old son!' What yer got in yer cap, Kay?' cried his friends; to which the sweet voice replied, Who'll give me part of his doss (bed)? - my - eyes and limbs if I ain't perishin'! Who'll let me turn in with him for half my toke (bread)?' I feared how it would be! The hungry young fellow who had so readily availed himself of half my toke' snapped at Kay's offer, and after a little rearrangement and bed-making four young fellows instead of three reposed upon the hay-bags at my head.
'You was too late for skilley. Kay. There's skilley now, nights as well as mornins.'
'Don't you tell no bleeding lies,' Kay answered, incredulously.
'Blind me, it's true! Ain't it, Punch?'
'Right you are!' said Punch, and spoons to eat it with, that's more! There used to be spoons at all the houses, one time. Poplar used to have em; but one at a time they was all nicked, don't you know.' ( Nicked' means stolen', obviously.)
'Well, I don't want no skilley, leastways not tonight,' said Kay. I've had some rum. Two glasses of it; and a blow out of puddin' - regler Christmas plum puddin'. You don't know the cove as give it me, but, thinks I this mornin' when I come out, Blessed if I don't go and see my old chum. Lordstruth! he was struck! "Come alon~g, he ses, "I saved you some puddin' from Christmas. "Whereabouts is it 7 I ses. "In that box under my bed, he ses, and he forks it out. That's the sort of pal to have! And he stood a quarten, and half a ounce of hard-up (tobacco). That wasn't all, neither; when 1 come away, ses he, "How about your breakfus ?" "Oh, I shall do, ses I. "You take some of my bread and butter, he ses, and he cuts me off four chunks buttered thick. I eat two on em comin' along.'
'What's in your cap, Kay?' repeated the devourer of toke'.
'Them other two slices,' said Kay; generously adding, There, share em amongst yer, and somebody give us a whiff of bacca.'
'Kay showed himself a pleasant companion; what in a higher grade of society is called quite an acquisition'. He told stories of thieving, and of a certain silver cup' he had been put up to', and avowed that he meant to nick it afore the end of the week, if he got seven stretch (seven years?) for it. The cup was worth ten quid (pounds?), and he knew where to melt it within ten minutes of nicking it. He made this statement without any moderation of his sweet voice, and the other received it as a serious statement. Nor was there any affectation of secrecy in another gentleman, who announced amid great applause that he had stolen a towel from the bath-room:
'And s'help me! it's as good as new; never been washed more'n once!'
'Tell us a "rummy story, Kay,' said somebody: and Kay did. He told stories of so 'rummy' a character that the decent men at the farther end of the room (some of whom had their own little boys sleeping with them) must have lain in a sweat of horror as they listened. Indeed, when Kay broke into a 'rummy' song with a roaring chorus, one of the decent men rose in his bed and swore that he would smash Kay's head if he didn't desist. But Kay sang on till he and his admirers were tired of the entertainment.
'Now,' said he, let's have a swearing club! You'll all be in it?'
The principle of this game seemed to rest on the impossibility of either of the young gentlemen making hal.f a dozen observations without introducing a blasphemous or obscene word; and either the basis is a very sound one, or for the sake of keeping the club' alive the members purposely made slips. The penalty for swearing' was a punch on any part of the body, except a few which the club rules protected. The game was highly successful. Warming with the sport, and indifferent to punches, the members vied with each other in audacity, and in a few minutes Bedlam in its prime could scarcely have produced such a spectacle as was to be seen on the beds behind- me. One rule of the club was that any word to be found in the Bible might be used with impunity, and if one member punched' another for using such a word the error was to be visited upon him with a double punching all round. This naturally led to much argument; for in vindicating the Bible as his authority, a member became sometimes so much heated as to launch into a flood of real swearing', which brought the fists of the club upon his naked carcase quick as hail.
These and other pastimes beguiled the time until, to my delight, the church chimes audibly tolled twelve. After this the noise gradually subsided, and it seemed as though everybody was going to sleep at last. I should have mentioned that during the story-telling and song-singing a few casuals' had dropped in, but they were not habitu?s, and cuddled down with their rugs over their heads without a word to any one.
In a little while all was quiet - save for the flapping of the canvas curtain in the night breeze, the snoring, and the horrible, indescribable sound of impatient hands scratching skins that, itched. There was another sound of very frequent occurrence, and that was the clanking of the tin pannikin against the water pail. Whether it is in the nature of workhouse bread or skilley to provoke thirst is more than my limited experience entities me to say, but it may be truthfully asserted that once at least in the course of five minutes might be heard a rustling' of straw, a pattering of feet, and then the noise of water-dipping; and then was to be seen at the pail the figure of a man (sometimes stark naked), gulping down the icy water as he stood upon them icy stones.
And here I may remark that I can furnish no solution to this mystery of the shirt. I only know that some of my comrades were provided with a shirt, and that to some the luxury was denied. I may say this, however, that none of the little boys were allowed one.
Nearly one o'clock. Still quiet, and no fresh arrival for an hour or more. Then suddenly a loud noise of hobnailed boots kicking at a wooden gate, and soon after a tramping of feet and a rapping at Daddy's door, which, it will be remembered, was only separated from our bedroom by an open paved court.
'Hallo!' cried Daddy.
'Here's some more of em for you - ten of em!' answered the porter, whose voice·1 recognized at once.
'They'll have to find beds, then,' Daddy grumbled, as he opened his door. I don't believe there are four beds empty. 'They must sleep double, or something.'
This was terrible news for me. Bad enough, in all conscience, was it to lie as I was lying; but the prospect of sharing my straw with some dirty scoundrel of the Kay breed was altogether unendurable. Perhaps, however, they were not dirty scoundrels, but peaceable and decent men, like those in the farther corner.
Alas for my hopes! In the space of five minutes in they came at the rent in the canvas - great hulking ruffians, some with rugs and nothing else, and some with shirts and nothing else, and all madly swearing because, coming in after eleven o'clock, there was no 'toke' for them. As soon as these wrathful men had advanced to the middle of the shed they made the discovery that there was an insufficient number of beds - only three, indeed, for ten competitors.
'Where's the beds? D'ye hear, Daddy! You blessed truth- telling old person, where's the beds?'
'You'll find em. Some of em is lying on two, or got em as pillows. You'll find em.'
With a sudden rush our new friends plunged amongst the sleepers, trampling over them, cursing their eyes and limbs, dragging away their rugs; and if by chance they found some poor wretch who had been tempted to take two beds (or bags) instead of one, they coolly hauled him out and took possession. There was no denying them, and no use in remonstrating. They evidently knew that they were at liberty to do just as they liked, and they took -full advantage of the privilege.
One of them came up to me, and shouting, I want that, you -, snatched at my birdseye' nightcap and carried it off.
There was a bed close to mine which contained only one occupant, and into this one of the newcomers slipped without a word of warning, driving its lawful owner against the wall to make room. Then he sat up in the bed for a moment, savagely venting his disappointment as to toke, and declaring that never before in his life had he felt the need of it so much. This was opportunity. Slipping my hand under my bed, I withdrew that judiciously hoarded piece of bread and respectfully offered it to him. He snapped at it with thanks.
By the time the churches were chiming two, matters had once more adjusted themselves, and silence reigned, to be disturbed only by drinkers at the pail, or such as, otherwise prompted, stalked into the open yard. Kay, for one, visited it. I mention this unhappy young wretch particularly, because he went out without a single rag to his back. I looked out at the rent in the canvas, and saw the frosty moon shining on him. When he returned, and crept down between Punch and another, he muttered to himself, Warm again! O my G-d 1 warm again!'
Whether there is a rule which closes the casual wards after a certain hour I do not know; but before one o'clock our number was made up, the last corner signalizing his appearance with a grotesque pas seul. His rug over his shoulders, he waltzed into the shed, waving his hands, and singing in an affected voice, as he sidled along -
I like to be a swell, a-roaming down Pall Mall,
Or anywhere, - I don't much care, so I can be a swell -
a couplet which had an intensely comical effect. This gentleman had just come from a pantomime where he had learned
his song, probably. Too poor to pay for a lodging, he could
only muster means for a seat in the gallery of the Vic.'; where
he was well entertained, judging from the flattering manner in
which he spoke of the clown. The columbine was less fortunate
in his opinion. She's werry dickey! - ain't got what I call
"move about her.' However, the wretched young woman was
respited now from the scourge of his criticism; for the critic
and his listeners Were fast asleep: and yet I doubt whether
any one of the company slept very soundly. Every moment
some one shifted uneasily; and as the night wore on the silence
was more and more irritated by the sound of coughing. This
was one of the most distressing things in the whole adventure.
The conversation was horrible, the tales that were told more
horrible still, and worse than either (though not by any means
the most infamous things to be heard - I dare not even hint at
them) was that song, with its bestial chorus shouted from a
dozen throats; but at any rate they kept the blood warm with
constant hot flushes of anger; while as for the coughing, to lie
on the flagstones in what was nothing better than an open
shed, and listen to that, hour after hour, chilled one's very
.heart with pity. Every variety of cough that ever I heard was
to be heard there: the hollow cough; the short cough; the
hysterical cough; the bark that comes at regular intervals, like
the quarter-chime of a clock, as if to mark off the progress of
decay; coughing from vast hollow chests, coughing from little
narrow ones - now one, now another, now two or three
together, and then a minute's interval of silence in which to
think of it all, and wonder who would begin next. One of the
young reprobates above me coughed so grotesquely like the
chopping of wood that I named him in my mind the Woodcutter. Now and then I found myself coughing too, which may
have added just a little to the poignant distress these awfully
constant and various sounds occasioned me. They were good
in one way: they made one forget what wretches they were
who, to all appearances, were so rapidly chopping' their way
to a pauper's graveyard. I did not care about the more matured
ruffians so much; but, though the youngest, the boys like Kay,
were unquestionably amongst the most infamous of my comrades, to hear what cold and hunger and vice had done for
them at fifteen was almost enough to make a man cry; and
there were boys there even younger than these.
At half-past two, every one being asleep, or at least lying still, Daddy came in and counted us: one, two, three, four, and so on, in a whisper. Then, finding the pail empty (it was nearly full at half-past nine, when I entered), he considerately went and refilled it, and even took much trouble in searching for the tin pot which served as a drinking cup, and which the last corner had playfully thrown to the farther end of the shed. I ought to have mentioned that the pail stood close to my head; so that I had peculiar opportunities of study as one after another of my comrades came to the fountain to drink: just as the brutes -do in those books of African travel. The pail refilled, Daddy returned, and was seen no more till morning.
It still wanted four hours and a half to seven o'clock - the hour of rising - and never before in my life did time appear to creep so slowly. I could hear the chimes of a parish church, and of the Parliament Houses, as well as those of a wretched tinkling Dutch clock somewhere on the premises. The parish church was the first to announce the hour (an act of kindness I feel bound to acknowledge), Westminster came next, the lazy Dutchman declining his consent to the time o' day till fully sixty second afterwards. And I declare I thought that difference of sixty seconds an injury - if the officers of the house took their time from the Dutchman. It may seem a trifle, but a minute is something when a man is lying on a cold flagstone, and the wind of a winter night is blowing in your hair. Three o'clock, four o'clock struck, and still there was nothing to beguile the time but observation, under the one flaring gaslight, of the little heaps of outcast humanity strewn about the floor; and after a while, I find, one may even become accustomed to the sight of one's fellow-creatures lying around you like covered corpses in a railway shed. For most of the company were now bundled under the rugs in the ghastly way I have already described - though here and there a cropped head appeared, surmounted by a billy-cock like my own, or by a greasy cloth cap. Five o'clock, six o'clock chimed, and then I had news - most welcome - of the world without, and of the real beginning of day. Half a dozen factory bells announced that it was time for working men to -go to labour; but my companions were not working men, and so snored on. Out through the gap in the canvas the stars were still to be seen shining on the black sky, but that did not alter the fact that it was six o'clock in the morning. I snapped my fingers at the Dutchman, with his sixty seconds slow, for in another hour I fondly hoped to be relieved from duty. A little while, and doors were heard to open and shut; yet a little while, and the voice of Daddy was audible in conversation with another early bird; and then I distinctly caught the word bundles'. Blessed sound! I longed for my bundle - for my pleasing brown coat - for my warm if unsightly 'jersey' - for my corduroys and liberty.
'Clang!' went the workhouse clock. 'Now, then! wake em up!' cried Daddy. I was already up - sitting up, that is - being anxious to witness the resurrection of the ghastly figures rolled in their rugs. But nobody but myself rose at the summons. They knew what it meant well enough, and in sleepy voices cursed the bell and wished it in several dreadful places; but they did not move until there came in at the hole in the canvas two of the pauper inhabitants of the house, bearing bundles. 'Thirty-two,' twenty-eight!' they bawled, but not my number, which was thirty-four. Neither thirty-two. nor twenty-eight, however, seemed eager to accept his good fortune in being first called. They were called upon three several times before they would answer; and then they replied with a savage Chuck it here, can't you!' Not before you chucks over your shirt and ticket,' the bundle-holder answered, whereupon 'thirty-eight' sat up, and, divesting himself of his borrowed shirt, flung it with his wooden ticket; and his bundle was flung back in return.
It was some time before bundle No. 34 turned up, so that I had fair opportunity to observe my neighbours. The decent men slipped into their rags as soon as they got them, but the blackguards were in no hurry. Some indulged in a morning pipe to prepare themselves for the fatigue of dressing, while others, loosening their bundles as they squatted naked, commenced an investigation for certain little animals which shall be nameless.
At last my turn came; and chucking over' my shirt and ticket, I quickly attired myself in clothes which, ragged as they were, were cleaner than they looked. In less than two minutes I was out of the shed, and in the yard; where a few of the more decent poor fellows were crowding round a pail of water, and scrambling after something that might pass for a wash' - finding their own soap, as far as I could observe, and drying their faces on any bit of rag they might happen to have about them, or upon the canvas curtain of the shed.
By this time it was about half-past seven, and the majority of the casuals were up and dressed. I observed, however, that none of the younger boys were as yet up, and it presently appeared that there existed some rule against their dressing in the shed; for Daddy came out of the bath-room, where the bundles were deposited, and called out, Now four boys!' and instantly four poor little wretches, some with their rugs trailing about their shoulders and- some quite bare, came shivering over the stones and across the bleak yard, and were admitted to the bath-room to dress. Now four more boys!' cried Daddy; and so on.
When all were up and dressed, the boys carried the bed rugs into Daddy's room, and the pauper inmates made a heap of the beds', stacking them against the wall. As before mentioned, the shed served the treble purpose of bed-chamber, workroom, and breakfast-room; it was impossible to get fairly at the cranks and set them going until the bedding was stowed away.
Breakfast before work, however; but it was a weary while to some of us before it made its appearance. For my own part, I had little appetite, but about me were a dozen poor wretches who obviously had a very great one: they had come in overnight too late for bread, and perhaps may not have broken fast since the morning of the previous day. The decent ones suffered most. The blackguard majority were quite cheerful - smoking, swearing, and playing their pretty horse play, the prime end of which was pain or discomfiture for somebody else. One casual there was with only one leg. When he came in overnight he wore a black hat, which added a certain look of respectability to a worn suit of black. All together his clothes had been delivered up to him by Daddy, but now he was seen hopping disconsolately about the place on his crutch, for the hat was missing. He was a timid man, with a mild voice; and whenever he asked some ruffian whether he had seen such a thing as a black hat', and got his answer, he invariably said Thank you,' which was regarded as very amusing. At last one sidled up to him with a grin, and showing about three square inches of some fluffy substance, said, Is this anything like wot you've lost, guv'ner?'
The cripple inspected it. 'That's the rim of it!' he said. What a shame!' and hobbled off with tears in his eyes.
Full three-quarters of an hour of loitering and shivering, and then came the taskmaster: a soldierly-looking man over six feet high, with quick grey eyes in which No trifling' appeared as distinctly as a notice against trespassing on a wayside board. He came in amongst us, and the grey eyes made out our number in a moment. Out into the yard, all of you!' he cried; and we went out in a mob. There we shivered for some twenty minutes longer, and then a baker's man appeared with a great wooden tray piled up with just such slices of bread as we had received overnight. The tray was consigned to an able-bodied casual, who took his place with the taskmaster at the shed door; and then in single file we re-entered the shed, each man and boy receiving a slice as he passed in. Pitying, as I suppose, my unaccustomed look, Mr Taskmaster gave me a slice and a large piece over.
The bread devoured, a clamour for 'skilley' began. The rumour had got abroad that this morning, and on all future mornings, there would be skilley at breakfast, and Skilley! skilley!' resounded through the shed. No one had hinted that it was not forthcoming, but skilley seems to be thought an extraordinary concession, and after waiting only a few minutes for it, they attacked the taskmaster in the fiercest manner. They called him thief, sneak, and crawler'. Little boys black- guarded him in gutter language, and, looking him in the face, consigned him to hell without flinching. He never uttered a word in reply, or showed a sign of impatience; and whenever he was obliged to speak it was quite without temper.
There was a loud 'hooray!' when the longed-for skilley appeared in two pails, in one of which floated a small tin saucepan, with a stick thrust into its handle, by way of a ladle. Yellow pint basins were provided for our use, and large iron spoons. Range. round the walls!' the taskmaster shouted. We obeyed with the utmost alacrity; and then what I should judge to be about three-fourths of a pint of gruel was handed to each of us as we stood. I was glad to get mine, because the basin that contained it was warm and my hands were numb with cold. I tasted a spoonful, as in duty bound, and wondered more than ever at the esteem in which it was held by my confrères. It was a weak decoction of oatmeal and water, bitter, and without even a pinch of salt to flavour it - that I could discover. But it was hot; and on that account, perhaps, was so highly relished that I had no difficulty in persuading one of the decent men to accept my share.
It was now past eight o'clock, and as I knew that a certain quantity of labour had to be performed by each man before he was allowed to go his way, I was anxious to begin. The labour was to be 'crank' labour. The 'cranks' are a series of iron bars extending across the width of the shed, penetrating through the wall, and working a flour mill on the other side. Turning the 'crank' is like turning a windlass. The task is not a severe one. Four measures of corn (bushels they were called - but that is doubtful) have to be ground every morning by the night's batch of casuals. Close up by the ceiling hangs a bell connected with the machinery; and as each measure is ground the bell rings, so that the grinders may know how they ire going on. But the grinders are as lazy as obscene. We were no sooner set to work than the taskmaster left us to our own sweet will, with nothing to restrain its exercise but an occasional visit from the miller, a weakly expostulating man. Once or twice he came in and said mildly, Now then, my men, why don't you stick to it?' - and so went out again.
The result of this laxity of overseeing would have disgusted me at any time,. and was intensely disgusting then. At least one half the gang kept their hands from the crank whenever the miller was absent, and betook themselves to their private amusements and pursuits. Some sprawled upon the beds and smoked; some engaged themselves and their friends in tailoring, and one turned hair-cutter for the benefit of a gentleman who, unlike Kay, had not just come out of prison. There were three tailors: two of them on the beds mending their own coats, and the other operating on a recumbent friend in the rearward part of his clothing. Where the needles came from I do not know; but for thread they used a strand of the oakum (evidently easy to deal with) which the boys were picking in the corners. Other loungers strolled about with their hands in their pockets, discussing the topics of the day, and playing practical jokes on the industrious few: a favourite joke being to take a bit of rag, anoint it with grease from the crank axles, and clap it unexpectedly over somebody's eye.
The consequence of all this was that the cranks went round at a very slow rate and now and then stopped altogether. Then the miller came in; the loungers rose from their couches, the tailors ceased stitching, the smokers dropped their pipes, and every fellow was at his post. The cranks spun round furiously again, the miller's expostulation being drowned amidst a shout of 'Slap bang, here we are again!' or this extemporized chorus:
We'll hang up the miller on a sour apple tree,
We'll hang up the miller on a sour apple tree,
We'll hang up the miller on a sour apple tree,
And then go grinding on.
Glory, glory, Hallelujah, etc., etc.
By such ditties the ruffians enlivened their short spell of
work. Short indeed! The miller departed, and within a minute
afterwards beds were reoccupied, pipes lit, and tailoring
resumed. So the game continued - the honest fellows sweating
at the cranks, and anxious to get the work done and go out to
look for more profitable labour, and the paupers by profession-
taking matters quite easy. I am convinced that had the work
been properly superintended the four measures of corn might
have been ground in the space of an hour and a half. As it was,
when the little bell tinkled for the fourth time, and the yard
gate was opened and we were free to depart, the clock had
I had seen the show - gladly I escaped into the open streets. The sun shone brightly on my ragged, disreputable figure, and showed its squalor with startling distinctness; but within all was rejoicing. A few yards, and then I was blessed with the sight of that same vehicle - waiting for me in the spot where I had parted from it fourteen weary hours before. Did you observe, Mr Editor, with what alacrity I jumped in? I have a vivid recollection of you, Sir - sitting there with an easy patience, lounging through your Times, and oh! so detestably clean to look at! But, though I resented your collar, I was grateful for the sight of a familiar fate, and for that draught of sherry which you considerately brought for me - a welcome refreshment after so many weary hours of fasting.
And now I have come to he end I remember many little
incidents which escaped me h~ writing this narrative. I ought
to have told you of two quiet elderly gentlemen who, amidst
all the blackguardism that we4t on around, held a discussion
upon the merits of the English language - one of the disputants
showing an especial admiration for the word kindle', fine old
Saxon word as ever was coined'. Then there were some childish
games of first and last letters', to vary such entertainments as
that of the swearing club. I should also have mentioned that
,on the dissolution of the swearing club a game at dumb -
motions' was started, which presently led to some talk concerning deaf and dumb people, and their method of conversing with
each other by means of finger signs; as well as to a little story -
that sounded strangely enough coming from the mouth of the most efficient member of the club. A good memory for details
enables me to repeat this story almost, if not quite, exactly.
'They are a rummy lot, them deaf and dumb,' said the storyteller. I was at the workhouse at Stepney when I was a young Un, don't you know; and when I got a holiday I used to go and see my old woman as lived in the Borough. Well, one day a woman as was in the house ses to me, ses she, "Don't you go past the Deaf and Dumb School as you goes home ?" So I ses, "Yes. So ses she, "Would you mind callin' there and takin' a message to my little girl as is in there deaf and dumb? So I ses, "No. Well, I goes, and they lets me in, and I tells the message, and they shows me the kid what it was for. Pooty little gal! So they tells her the message, and then she begins making orts and crosses like on her hands. "What's she a doin' that for ?" I ses. "She's a-talkin' to you, ses they. "Oh! I ses, "what's she talkin' about ?" "She says you're a good boy for comin' and tellin' her about her mother, and she loves you. Blest if I could help laughin'! So I ses, "There ain't no call for her to say that. Pooty little kid she was! I stayed there a goodish bit, and walked about the garden with her, and what d'ye think? Presently she takes a fancy for some of my jacket buttons - brass uns they was, with the name of the "house on em - and I cuts four on em off and gives her. Well, when I give her them blow me if she didn't want one of the brass buckles off my shoes. Well, you mightn't think it, but I gave her that too.
'Didn't yer get into a row when you got back?' some listener asked.
'Rather! Got kep without dinner and walloped as well, as I wouldn't tell what I'd done with em. Then they was goin' to wallop me again, so I thought I'd cheek it out; so I up and told the master all about it.'
'And got it wuss?'
'No, I didn't. The master give me new buttons and a buckle without saying another word, and my dinner along with my supper as well.'
The moral of all this I leave to the world. An irregularity which consigned some forty men to such a den on the night when somebody happened to be there to see, is probably a frequent one; and it certainty is infamous. And then as to the other workhouses? The Poor Law Board was in ignorance of what was done at Lambeth in this way, and I selected it for a visit quite at random. Do they know what goes on in other workhouses? If they are inclined to inquire, I may, perhaps, be able to assist the investigation by this hint: my companions had a discussion during the night as to the respective merits of the various workhouses; and the general verdict was that those of Tottenham and Poplar were the worst in London. Is it true, as I heard it stated, that at one of these workhouses the casual sleeps on bare boards, without a bed of any sort?
One word in conclusion. I have avoided the detail of horrors infinitely more revolting than anything that appears in these papers.
James Greenwood "A night in a Workhouse" Pall Mall Gazette, 1866
see also James
Greenwood on the "Labour-Test" etc in The Wilds of London - click here
see also Thomas Archer's Terrible Sights of London - click here
see also Dickens's Dictionary for a list of Metropolitan Workhouses - click here
see also Thomas Wright in The Pinch of Poverty - click here
see also Montagu Williams in Round London - click here
see also Arthur Sherwell's Life in West London - click here
A Palace for a Workhouse.
The New Imposing Institution in Marylebone which was Opened on
Description of the Building. - The Parochial Poor Law History
have been many and various guesses during the past few months as to the nature
of the highly decorative, mammoth institution that has been in progress of
construction in the Marylebone-road. Some people thought it was a palace for the Duke and Duchess of
York; others that it was to comprise a series of
"elegantly designed, desirable, and important residential flats," but
nobody took it for a workhouse, which it really is. There is nothing, except
its unusual degree of magnificence, to distinguish Marylebone's extended Poor
Law institution from the residences of princes and potentates, and our greatest
fear is that many of the inhabitants of the parish will make frantic efforts to
become destitute in order to seek the shelter of its palatial roof. The new
buildings, which were opened on Wednesday by Mr. Walter Dennis, chairman of
the Visiting Committee, stand upon the site of the original workhouse infirmary, built
in 1792. They comprise two double blocks, connected on the
ground floor and basement by wards and workrooms, and on the upper floors by
light fire-escape bridges. With the completion of a comparatively small block
of buildings for able-bodied men, and the enlargement of the receiving wards,
the workhouse will be at last entirely finished, after nearly thirty-five years
of gradual reconstruction. The too new blocks are, with a small exception,
exactly similar in arrangement. In the basement are large, well-lighted rooms,
which will be divided into workshops, and a part only of the west
block will form day-rooms, &c., in connection with the male able-bodied block to be
erected in the course of the present year. On the ground
floor half of each block is devoted to wards for lunatics and imbeciles. The
remaining half forms large, airy, and well lighted day-rooms. A dormitory for
cripples is placed between the two blocks. On the first floor there are two additional
day-rooms in each block, and dormitories for old men. The second floors are
also devoted to dormitories. The third and fourth floors comprise combined
dormitories and day-rooms for old men. Access is obtained to all floors by large
top-lighted staircases, the walls of which are faced throughout with white-glazed bricks.
Large lavatories are placed on the ground floor. Unusually good means of escape from fire are provided by
connecting up the two blocks at each floor level with bridges, and by two
special staircases, one at the end of each block. Cheerful airing yards are
provided, both at the front and in the rear of the buildings, the former being
laid out with gravelled paths and flower beds, and the latter paved. All the rooms and
heated by open fires and how pressure hot-water pipes circulating from steam
heaters in the basement. The system is so arranged that each room can be shut
off without interruption to the heating of the others. The basement workshops
are heated by steam coils. The whole of the buildings are lighted throughout by
electricity, but gas is provided at various points in case of necessity.
The first Board of Guardians for Marylebone, it is interesting to note, was appointed in 1775 the care and treatment of the poor being in the hands of the Justices of the Peace, the Overseers, and a Committee of Parishioners. Extracts from the old minute-books of the Board of 1777 and 1787 show that many severe punishments were inflicted on the inmates who occupied the old workhouse buildings. The first Board was requited to build a workhouse, but even previously to this there was no doubt a poorhouse for the parish, and that building, which accommodated on the 29th December, 1775, 298 mutates stood in Paddington-street, but the exact situation of it cannot now be traced. The poor relieved in this house were chiefly employed in the manufacture of linen cloth, and the master's name was Edmund Martin. On the 1st March, 1776, the Guardians resolved to build "prisons within the confines of the workhouse," and no doubt these "prisons" were erected to enable the Board to carry out the provisions of the Statute of 1756, which gave the governing body of that day the power, "at their discretion, to cause any poor person maintained in the workhouse, on misbehaving himself, to he punished in the workhouse, either by moderate correction or confinement, or distinction in diet, or such other method as might best tend to remedy such offence in the future."
Whilst the French Revolution was in progress the inhabitants of Marylebone formed themselves into a military association for the defence of the country, and their arms were provided by Government and deposited at the workhouse. The corps was formed in 1797, and disbanded in 1801. It was not until the year 1888 that aged married couples' quarters were erected, to accommodate ten couples, and they have been much appreciated by those unfortunate ratepayers who have had to seek the workhouse. The comfort and convenience of the aged inmates was, in 1886, much increased by the laying out and opening of the burial ground on the north side of Paddington-street (at the back of the workhouse) as an airing and recreation ground. With the erection of the block for able-bodied inmates, shortly to be commenced, all the buildings erected by the Board appointed prior to time year 1867, when the administration of the Poor Laws came under the orders of the Local Government Board, will entirely disappear.
The new buildings have been erected from the designs and under the superintendence of Mr. Alfied Saxon Snell. F.R.I.B.A., by Messrs. G. H. and A. Bywaters and Sons, whose contract for the work amounted to ?52,000. Mr. Frederick Lee acted as clerk of works until his death, in October last. Since then Mr. E. W. Nightingale, M.C.W.A., has superintended the buildings.
The whole of the engineering works have been carried out by Messrs Rosser and Russell; the electric lighting by Messrs. W. .J. Fryer and Co.; floor tiling by Messrs. Woolliscroft and Co.; patent paving and flooring by Messrs. Stuart and Co. glazed brick facings and porcelain baths by the Farnley Iron Company; iron railings and gates by Messrs Potter and Sons and Messrs. Emanuel and Sons. Limited; sanitary apparatus throughout by Messrs. Emanuel and Sons Limited; fanlight openers and gearing by Messrs. W and R. Leggott; and skylights by the British Challenge Glazing Company. The quantities and measurements were carried out by Messrs. Northcroft, Son, and Neighbour.
The opening ceremony on Wednesday afternoon was performed by Mr. Walter Dennis, chairman of the Workhouse Visiting Committee. Lord and Lady Farquhar, Mr. E. Boulnois, M.P., and Mt. T. W. Russell, M.P., were amongst those invited to attend. Mr. Dennis was received on his arrival by the chairman. Mr. E. White, London County Council, the other members of the Board, Canon Barker, Mr. Dudman, Mr. Simmonds, Mr. Northcroft, Mr. Snell, and Mr. Bywaters. A procession was then formed, and Mr. Dennis was conducted to the dining-hall where he was introduced by the chairman of the Board to the assembled company, and the architect handed him the key with which to open the door of the new front blocks. The procession then re-formed, and proceeded to the east door of the front blocks, and Mr. Dennis, on the company being assembled in the yard, unlocked the door and entered. followed by the procession and visitors, and proceeded upstairs to the raised dais in the ward, where, on the company being again assembled, he declared the building open for the relief and maintenance of the destitute poor settled in Marylebone. The religions part of the ceremony was conducted by the Rev. Canon Barker, assisted by the Rev. F. Tofts, Chaplain in the Workhouse. At the close of the proceedings the visitors were conducted through the buildings by members of the committee. The inmates were given a special tea in honour of the occasion, and Mr. Thomas generously gave them an entertainment in the large dining hall.
Municipal Journal, established as "London", March 23, 1900